BATTLE KENNINGS OF SKALDIC POETRY (Meissner: 81)
Based on Meissner's "Die Kenningar der Skalden" (1921), pp. 178-202.

COMPLETE ALPHABETICAL LISTING

This website is experimental and incomplete. I have taken Meissner's data on BATTLE Kennings, reclassified it slightly, and attempted to present it in a new manner. My treatment differs somewhat from Meissner's, although I have basically stuck to his classification. The important differences are:

1. While Meissner stresses classification by Stem, I have stressed classification by Qualifier.

2. Meissner's sub-classification of Stems has mostly been avoided. My aim is to simplify, rather than to complicate. As an example, I have ignored Meissner's attempts to differentiate between various types of Weather, since this seems quite irrelevant.

3. As a result, I have merged some of Meissner's classes. Most importantly:

MEISSNER 81:A-D(E) = WEATHER
MEISSNER 81:F-G(H)+N(O) = SOUND
MEISSNER 81:R+U = TUMULT

4. I have left out Meissner's 81:T - frišbann, frišslit can hardly be seen as proper kennings for BATTLE.

5. Some of the kennings in Meissner's 81:W ("Various") have been left out; others have simply been reclassified.

Simplifying Meissner's approach, I have come to the conclusion that the STEMS of the 795 BATTLE kennings treated here may be classified as shown in the table below. It should be pointed out that WEATHER covers 41% of the whole, and that the three most common types (WEATHER, SOUND, MEETING) cover 80% of the whole.

CLICK STEM TYPE FOR COMPLETE LISTING

AWEATHER321
BSOUND220
CMEETING87
DMOVEMENT43
EDISPUTE31
FPLAY30
GTUMULT17
HJUDGEMENT14
IHARM14
JVALKYRIE10
KREDDENING1
LPERIOD2
MFEAST3
 ALL COMBINED795

Any classification of the above STEMS will always be problematic and open to criticism. However, the classification of QUALIFIERS is much simpler. I have settled upon the following:

1.aODIN45
1.bOTHER GODS3
1.cHEROES24
1.dVALKYRIES70
2.ABATTLE (self-referential)32
3.aWEAPONS (general)29
3.bWEAPONS (general): METALS31
3.cWEAPONS (general): POINTS26
3.dWEAPONS (general): SHAFTS21
3.eWEAPONS (general): SPIKES7
3.fWEAPONS (double designation)3
4.aWEAPONS: ARROWS14
4.bWEAPONS: AXES6
4.cWEAPONS: BOWS11
4.dWEAPONS: BOWSTRINGS2
4.eWEAPONS: ROCKS3
4.fWEAPONS: SPEARS72
4.gWEAPONS: SWORDS237
5.aARMOUR: BYRNIES13
5.bARMOUR: HELMETS20
5.cARMOUR: SHIELDS108
6.aBLOOD3
6.bWOUNDS3
6.cTHE SLAIN3
6.dRAVENS3
6.eWOLVES1
7.bBATTLE-FIELD1
8.aMEN (general)2
8.bMEN: WARRIORS1
8.cMEN: SEAFARERS1