Writing on Ice
the Ethnographic Notebooks of Vilhjalmur Stefansson

Above: A map showing the routes traveled by V. Stefansson 1906-1914.

Above: A map showing the approximate location of native American Indian and Inuit territories, combined with Stefanssonīs routes. Although boundaries are shown on this map, that was never so neat in reality. In fact, boundaries were very fluid and unclear. Territorial views concentrated on usufruct rights of hunting in valleys and water basins.

Above: Panigabluk and her son Alex. She was a seamstress in one of Stefanssonīs travels. According to Inuit customs Stefansson and Panigabluk were married. Their son, Alex, was born on one of these travels. Panigabluk was an Inupiat from Kotzebue Sound in northwest Alaska.

Above: Alex Stefansson and family.

Above: Vilhjalmur Stefanssonīs handwritten diaries. Often Stefanssonīs handwriting reflected his mood and aspirations and thus inadvertently expressed his feelings, both hope and desperation.

Above: Rosie Stefansson, Vilhjalmur Stefanssonīs grandchild, during an interview with the author at Inuvik in the summer of 2000.

Above: Rosie Stefansson dressed in traditional clothing.

Above: Georgina Stefansson, one of Stefanssonīs descendants, in Inuvik during the summer 2000.

Above: Frank Stefansson taking the author on a trip in the Mackenzie River delta during the summer 2000 to look at a cabin which Stefansson and Panigabluk lived in.

Above: "Stefanssonīs cabin" at Nunaluk in Mackenzie Bay.

Above: Frank Stefansson at "Stefanssonīs Cabin".