Entrepreneurship and Design
The process of globalization transforms individual national economies into one global,
interdependent economy. Activities which were previously carried out within a national or
a regulated international framework will from now on be carried out globally, according to
the needs of the global market place.
"Internationalization" and "globalization"
are separate concepts but they are not so sharply different from each other.
Essentially, internationalization takes place
between individual nations, between individual companies
operating in different countries, and between individual citizens of different countries. Globalization,
however, ignores national boundaries.
It is a complex process taking place between societies, companies, and also
increasingly between individual people and it covers the whole world. It mostly occurs as
a result of new
technology, and is linked by that technology.
Economic liberalization has spread throughout the world. For the first time in world
history, there is now a chance to achieve a society that communicates globally."
Read more at: http://boardofeducation.com/term/eco73.htm
See also: Fast New Product Development http://www.hi.is/~joner/eaps/cq_fastn.htm
- Strategic Planning (in nonprofit or for-profit
- Creating a powerful vision NogH:
"What is Vision?
Definition of vision
Vision is helping people believe they can accomplish their goalsthat they can move
towards a better future through their own efforts. Vision is conveyed by inspiration.
Examples are Franklin D. Roosevelt announcing in May 1940 that he had set a production
goal of 50,000 planes a year and John F. Kennedy announcing that we would put a man on the
moon within the decade. Both goals were breathtaking, and both were achieved. No one can
doubt that in each case the goal was achieved by the dramatic announcement and the
infectious inspiration it
See much more at http://www.hi.is/~joner/eaps/cq_visio.htm
- Developing/Updating a Vision Statement
See more at: http://www.hi.is/~joner/eaps/cq_globi.htm
- Product Development Cycle Time and
Commercial Success Marc H. Meyer & James Utterback
"Time-based competition" is a currently popular concept
for managing business. As applied to the development of new, technologically complex
products, the reasoning states that a firm will be most successful if its development
times are shorter and high quality products generated faster than its competitors.
Our research shows that in certain types of new product
situations -- those where technological and market familiarity are high -- that rapid
development times are strongly
correlated with commercial success. However and equally
important is that when either technologies or customer applications are new to a firm, no
exists and trying to force rapid development can produce unwanted results. Further,
we have found that significant levels of technology integration, which occurs when
multiple core product technologies must be combined, can be expected to have a major
impact on the speed of developing new products. Similarly, in the marketing dimension,
undertaking new channels of distribution will also extend the time required to develop and
bring new products to market.
These findings are important because for all the talk about time-based competition, there
is very little in the way of field research that has focused on the topic. Gupta and
Willemon reached a similar conclusion. Nonetheless, many arguments have been advanced in
favor of moving new product concepts through development and into the market quickly.
Stalk argues that reducing the time to develop an idea will extend the effective product
selling period, allow a firm to increase its market share, increase profitability, and to
set standards for technology in its chosen industry. Smith and Reinertsen gathered data
from General Motors, IBM, and
Hewlett-Packard that indicates a halving of their respective product development times.
Stalk compares the Japanese approach of favoring smaller increments of improvement more
often to the claimed Western approach of larger but less frequent changes. He goes on to
stress greater use by the Japanese of cross-functional teams and local, decentralized
responsibility for development."
"Many manufacturing executives recognize the significance of response time as
a competitive weapon but are struggling to achieve world-class speed. This book explains
how other US firms have dealt with the problems of time-compressing different segments of
the value-delivery chain - new product development, manufacturing, and distribution. With
the exception of fine wines and art, few industries seem to be immune from time
competition. In every industry we have studied, at least one firm leads in terms of speed
of response to the market, and, most significantly, these time -competitive firms are
emerging as the market leaders. This book is not
only for business mangers, but also for academic personnel who are continually searching
for new research ideas in the management field of operations. Specific topics covered
include: a strategic overview, new-product development, time compressing logistics &
distribution, and the top managers role. "
- Lean Manufacturing Glossary
"Network-Based Manufacturing Scheduling and Supply Chain Coordination
Peter B. Luh and L. S. Thakur
The competitive advantage of manufacturing has gradually shifted from "cost-based
competition" and "quality-based competition" to todays
competition" with cost and quality considered given.
The importance of time is well illustrated by a study that a 50% over expenditure
in product development leads to only about 4% loss of total recoverable profit from that
But if the product is late to market by 6 months in a life cycle of 5 years, it can
lose one third of its profit .
In the proposed research, we shall address major internal factors causing long lead
times inadequate factory scheduling leading to long queue times, large number of
setups, and poor utilization of resources. We shall also address major external factors
causing long lead times
ineffective coordination with customers, suppliers, sister divisions, and partners,
resulting in adverse supplier conditions and a lack of overall enterprise agility.
The proposed research will be built on our recent work on optimization-based scheduling.
Yielding a US patent and two best paper awards [2-4], the centerpiece of these methods is
an iterative approach that synergistically combines a decomposition/coordination
optimization technique (Lagrangian relaxation) and heuristics. The unique features include
near-optimal solutions with quantifiable quality, fast computation time, and the
at diverse manufacturing settings. Building on this foundation, the proposed research is
to develop an integrated scheduling and supply chain coordination method using Internet II
as the communication infrastructure."
of Engineering Design http://www.asee.org/
B-KHI BSTUD AMAZON
The implications for innovation:
- more numerous and more able competitors
- home markets no longer "secure"
- greater demands on the NPD process
- speed http://www.hi.is/~joner/eaps/cq_fastn.htm
- Competition of (skilled) labor from the Third World
- global markets
- much larger markets
- New niches become viable
Many numerous niches can be opened
that make a large number of
innovations viable - that would not stand a
chance on more restricted markets (GTH?)
Demands on firms
- Develop a global mindset.
=> Develop new products with the global market from the very start!
=> Recruit people that are able to work in international
(Language skills, knowledge og
Business Culture, Cosmopolitan attitude etc)
- Master Global Marketing Skills
- Master speedy product development
- Concurrent Engineering
- Rapid Prototyping
- Collaborative Engineering http://noghri.bydg.pdi.net/~pawlak/BENEFIT/co-Web97-paper-WWW.htm
- Intensify Environmental Scanning
Environmental Scanning: A Knowledge Industry of the 21st Century
||"Richard A. Slaughter, Director, Futures Study
The global environment is constantly emitting an infinite number of 'signals' about many,
No individual, no organisation, can pay attention to more than a tiny fraction of them.
In addition, the early signals of potentially influential phenomena are usually small,
indistinct and hard to
separate from the background 'noise'. Yet the earlier they can be detected, the longer is
the lead-time available to respond."
Given the turbulence of the early 21st century environment, the dysfunctions embedded in
social, economic and some technical systems, and the rapid pace of change, ES promises to
be one of the most widespread industries of the near future."
Demands on individuals
- Greater skills needed in:
- Business Culture
- Cross Cultural Project management
- Web Based PM
- NPD Skills
NB: People who whish to secure opportunities within firms that
operate on a global level need to strenghten their skills in a number
of areas which may be weak in traditional education.
As education is a slow process this has to be undertaken
in good time ! - It may be too late when one arrives on the job!
Other people that have the necessary skills will be preferred for international
assignments if they are available.
Start preparing ASAP if you want to secure opportunities of this kind!
Foreign universities are scrambling to add the global dimension
Knowing the changed need of the global business environment many
universities have started strong programs that emphasize the global
Icelandic firms that are becoming increasingly global
A systematic approach to the integrated, concurrent design of products and their related
including manufacture and support. This approach is intended to cause the developers, from
to consider all elements of the product life cycle from conception through disposal,
cost, schedule and user requirements. http://www.npd-solutions.com/glossary.html
Value Engineering - structured methodology for applying value analysis or function
analysis to increase customer or