Organizational Effectiveness and Efficiency

High Performance Organizations AV


Bootstrap Institute      Douglas Engelbart, Ph.D


Doug Engelbart, Bootstrap Institute founder and Director, has an unparalleled 30-year track record in predicting, designing, and implementing the future of organizational computing. From his early vision of turning organizations into augmented knowledge workshops, he went on to pioneer what is now known as collaborative hypermedia, knowledge management, community networking, and organizational transformation.

Well-known technological firsts include the mouse, display editing, windows, cross-file editing, outline processing, hypermedia, and groupware.
Integrated prototypes were in full operation under the NLS system, as early as 1968. In the last decade of its continued evolution, thousands of users have
benefited from its unique team support capabilities.

After 20 years directing his own lab at SRI, and 11 years as senior scientist, first at Tymshare, and then at McDonnell Douglas Corporation, Engelbart
founded the Bootstrap Institute, where he is working closely with industry and government stakeholders to launch a collaborative implementation of his work.

Engelbart has received numerous awards for outstanding lifetime achievement and ingenuity. His life's work, with his "big-picture" vision and persistent
pioneering breakthroughs, has made a significant impact on the past, present, and future of personal, interpersonal, and organizational computing.
The Bootstrap Institute offers collaborative programs and seminars by Doug Engelbart and his staff, aimed at developing high-performance organizations,
teams, and individuals.
Together we explore strategy, technologies, and processes of future work environments, including: 2A

Collaboration 2A1
Knowledge Management 2A2
Virtual Teaming 2A3
Continuous Improvement and Learning 2A4

Whether you are just embarking on a scouting mission, or ready to launch a full bootstrapping program, looking for someone to work with your management
on hot-button issues, or simply looking for a motivational speaker for your next event, the Bootstrap Institute offers a full range of services to meet your needs.
"Engelbart has forever changed the way we do business in America."
- Coors American Ingenuity Award '91
"Engelbart's contribution to personal computing is almost inestimable."
- PC Magazine Lifetime Achievement Award '87
"I don't know what Silicon Valley will do when we run out of Doug's ideas." - Computer Currents, Feb '90
"Work he did 25 years ago is still at the cutting edge . . .and his organizational ideas are at least as profound."
- Alan Kay in Leader to Leader, Sep '96 2C

Current participants now include leading organizations such as Sun Microsystems, Netscape Communications, Educational Testing Service, General Services Administration, NTT Labs, Institute for the Future, Morino Institute, and the the Kellogg Commission on the Future of State and Land-Grant Universities. Among the early initiatives are collaborative inter/intranet technology template, evolutionary knowledge management, customer focus, and commercial awareness. 3C




Overview of High Performance


High Performance Organizations achieve superior results by clarifying their strategy, streamlining their design (processes, systems and structure) and making each
person a contributing partner to the business. Employees understand the business, are committed to getting results, and are organized into units or teams that take full responsibility for making decisions, solving problems, and continuously improving the quality of their work.

Basic Principles

High Performance within an organization consists of the following basic principles:

People are the organization's greatest asset and are empowered with information, resources, training, and authority to manage
their work and contribute to the business in significant ways.

Work is designed around core business processes rather than functions
, so employees own responsibility for a whole and meaningful process or
segment of work.

Teams are the natural work units of high performance companies
and are responsible for managing all of the tasks to accomplish business goals.

The role of management changes from controlling workers
and solving day-to-day problems to defining strategy, managing systems, and creating an environment in which people can be most effective.

Companies organized by principles of High Performance consistently out-perform more traditional companies.
This outline for success is evident through both research and experience. In fact, an average improvement in productivity of 37% was visible in a review of 100 companies which had recently
redesigned their work environments.



Centre for Management Effectiveness Research Reports on Organizational Effectiveness




HISTORY: Vannevar Bush's Memex inspired the research of Douglas C. Engelbart, Ted Nelson, Andries van Dam, and, through their example, generations of students, researchers and knowledge workers.

Since 1958, Doug Engelbart pioneered the use of computers to augment the abilities of high performance teams. We believe his 1992 paper, Toward High-Performance Organizations: A Strategic Role for Groupware, sets the agenda for collaborative systems.

Since 1965, Ted Nelson has been changing the way we think. Feed Magazine says: "Reading [Nelson's] Literary Machines, you can't help feel the need for the system Nelson lays out: the mad organization of the book itself -- with its restless transitions
and MacDraw diagrams unhappily jailed on the page -- makes its own great case for Xanadu™."

From 1968, Brown University research teams led by Andy van Dam developed four generations of hypertext systems: the
Hypertext Editing System, FRESS, the Document System Presentation System, and IRIS Intermedia. These systems were
created for writing as well as reading electronic books.


The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People : Powerful Lessons in Personal Change
by Stephen R. Covey   Our Price: $11.20  Availability: Usually ships within 24 hours. Paperback - 360 pages Reprint edition (August 1990)
Fireside; ISBN: 0671708635 Sales Rank: 79

A reader from Greensboro, NC , March 2, 1999    The book is very good reading material.
As the title of the book implies, Covey describes the seven habits of highly effective people and techniques for adopting the seven habits.
Covey makes clear that an individual must make a paradigm shift before incorporating these habits into his/her own personal life. A paradigm
is essentially the way an individual perceives something. Covey emphasizes that if we want to make a change in our lives, we should
probably first focus on our personal attitudes and behaviors. He applies different examples via family, business, and society in general.

This book's focal point is on an approach to obtain personal and interpersonal effectiveness. Covey points out that private victories precede
public victories. He makes the example that making and keeping promises to ourselves comes before making and keeping promises to others.

Habits 1, 2, and 3 deal with self-mastery. They move an individual from dependency on others to independence. Habits 4, 5, and 6 deal with
teamwork, cooperation, and communication. These habits deal with transforming a person from dependency to independence to
interdependence. Interdependence simply means mutual dependence. Habit 7 embodies all of the other habits to help an individual work
toward continuous improvement.

Habit 1
discusses the importance of being proactive. Covey states that we are responsible for our own lives; therefore, we possess the
initiative to make things happen
. He also points out that proactive people so not blame various circumstances for their behaviors but they
realize behavior comes from one's conscious. Covey also explains that the other type of person is reactive. Reactive people are affected by
their social as well as physical surroundings.
This means that if the weather is bad, then it affects their behavior such as their attitude and

He also explains that all problems that are experienced by individuals fall into one of three categories, which are direct control, indirect
control, or no control. The problems that are classified under direct control are the problems that involve our own behavior. The problems
classified as indirect control encompasses problems that we can do nothing about. The problems classified as no control are those that we
can do nothing about.

Habit 2
focuses on beginning with the end in mind. Covey wants the reader to envision his/her funeral. This may sound disheartening but his
goal is to help you think about the words that you wish to be said about you; it can help the individual visualize what you value the most. To
begin with the end simply means to start with your destination in mind. That gives an individual a sense of where he/she presently is in their
life. One has to know where they are going to make sure that they are headed in the right direction. Covey also mentions that the most
effective way to begin with the end is by developing a personal mission statement. After doing that, you should identify your center of
attention. Are you spouse centered, money centered, family centered, etc. The he tells you depending on you core of interest, your
foundation for security, guidance, and power.

Habit 3
is the practical fulfillment of Habits 1 and 2. Covey accentuates that Habits 1 and 2 are prerequisite to Habit 3. He states that an
individual cannot become principle centered developing their own proactive nature; or without being aware of your paradigms; or the
capability of envisioning the contribution that is yours to make. One must have an independent will. This is the ability to make decisions and
to act in accordance with them.

Habit 4
deals with the six paradigms of interaction, which are win/win, win/lose, lose/win, lose/lose, win, and win/win or no deal. Win/win is a
situation in which everyone benefits something. It is not your way or my way; it is a better way. Win/lose declares that if I win then you lose.
Simply put, I get my way; you don't get yours. Win/lose people usually use position, power, possessions, or personality to get their way. The
win/lose type of person is the person that feels that if I lose; you win. People who feel this way are usually easy to please and find the
strength of others intimidating. When two win/lose people get together both will lose resulting in a lose/lose situation. Both will try to get the
upper end of the stick but in the end, neither gets anything. The person that simply thinks to win secures their own ends and leaves it up to
others to secure theirs. The win/win or no deal person means that if there is not a suitable solution met that satisfies both parties then there is
no agreement.

Habit 5
deals with seeking means of effective communication. This habit deals with seeking first to understand. However, we usually seek
first to be understood. Most people to not listen with the intent to understand but with the intent to reply. The act of listening to understand is
referred to as empathic listening. That means you try to get into the person's frame of mind and think as they are thinking.

Habit 6
discuses combining all of the other habits to prepare us for the habit of synergy. Synergy means that the sum of the whole is greater
than the sum of its parts. Possessing all of the habits will benefit an individual more than possessing one or two of them. Synergism in
communication allows you to open your mind to new possibilities or new options.

Habit 7
involves surrounds the other habits because it is the habit that makes all of the others possible. It is amplifying the greatest asset you
have which is yourself. It is renewing your physical, emotional, mental, and social nature. The physical scope involves caring for yourself
effectively. Spiritual renewal will take more time. Our mental development comes through formal education. Quality literature in our field of
study as well as other fields help to broaden our paradigms. Renewing the social dimension is not as time consuming as the others. We can
start by our everyday interactions with people.




Reinvention Goals for 2000

The Patent and Trademark Office's vision for the 21st Century
is to lead the world in providing customer-valued intellectual property rights that spark innovation, create consumer confidence and promote creativity.

Our commitment is that by the 21st century, we will achieve 95% satisfaction among customers who receive patents and trademarks.
Our plan is to deliver specific improvements in 1999 and reach our full target goal in the year 2003.


We will reduce the PTO's trademark processing time to three months to first action
and we will offer electronic filing capabilities to our
  An electronic trademark application will be placed on the PTO's web site, and trademark customers will be able to file applications and
related papers electronically.


We will test reengineered processes and automated systems, and be ready to deploy electronic processing of patent applications in 2003.
We will reduce PTO processing time for patent original inventions to 12 months in 2003 (and for 75 percent of all inventions in 1999).


We will partner with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) to achieve electronic filing of Patent Cooperation Treaty
and, in 2000, electronically receive and process PCT applications at the PTO.


We will enable customers to use the Internet
- to request the status of their patent and trademark applications,
- to place orders and receive products, and

-  to access patent and trademark data when they are in a Patent and Trademark Depository Library.


We will establish a fee schedule that encourages participation in the patent and trademark systems and aligns with costs.


We will offer PTO employees innovative training programs at PTO University and work-at-home opportunities.

For further information about PTO's High Impact Agency goals contact James R. Lynch, Comptroller and Deputy Chief Financial Officer (email or Frances Michalkewicz, Acting Budget Director and Director of Planning and Evaluation (email

Last modified: 23 March 1998