Leó Kristjánsson and Kristján P. Kristjánsson
Amund Helland and other geologists visiting Iceland in 1881. Náttúrufræðingurinn, 66 (1), 27-33, 1996 (In Icelandic).

English summary
The paper begins with a biographical outline of Professor Amund Helland (1846 - 1918), a Norwegian geologist who was very productive in research in a variety of fields including mining, Quaternary geology, and the geography of Norway. Helland travelled widely in Iceland in the summer of 1881 and wrote a number of papers on his observations there, especially on volcanology and geomorphology. He was, among other things, the first geologist to investigate the craters of the 1783 Lakagígar fissure eruption, and the first to estimate the discharge of Icelandic glacial rivers. He also published works of the Icelanders Sveinn Pálsson and Þorvaldur Thoroddsen in Norway.

Another geologist to visit Iceland in 1881 was James Geikie (1939 - 1915), soon to become Professor of geology at the University of Edinburgh. Geikie was a pioneer in studying glacial deposits and geomorphology, and he was a good friend of Amund Helland. Several other foreign geoscientists came to Iceland in the years around 1881.