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8th-5th centuries b.C., Urals (modern Russia). In the Urals region beginning of independent Magyar history.

 

After 670 AD, Etelköz (North bank of the Blach Sea, modern Ukraine and Moldova).  The  Magyars take up the place of the Bulghars between the River Dniepr and Danube (Etelköz). The Magyars had became an autonomous and significant European power.   

 

Autumn 895 AD, Carpathian Montains.  Magyars enter the Carpathian Basin from the Verecke pass.

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1001, Székesfehérvár, Hungary. Coronation of Saint Stephen, first king of Hungary.

 

1038, Hungary - Venice. Following the wish of Saint Stephen,  Pietro Orseolo (* 1011 ca. + 30-8-1059), is elected King of Hungary (8-1038/1041 and 1044/1047, forced to leave Hungary). Pietro was son of Otto (Ottone; + ca. 1030), Doge of Venezia (1008/1026) and Maria (Ilona; + ca. 1026; daughter of Géza Duke of Hungary and Adelaide princess from Poland). Pietro had a sister, Froizza (Froila; + 17-2-1071), later (1041) wife of Adalbert I of Babenberg Margravius of Austria (+ 26-5-1055). Sister and brothers of Pietro´s father, Otto, were: Giovanni, (* 985;  +1006; who married Maria Argyropulos, daughter of Romanus III Argyropulos Roman Emperor of Byzantium); Basilio ( + 1006); Hicela (Joscella; married to the prince of Croatia); Enrico; Felicia ("Badessa di Sant’Antonio" in Torcello); Domenico (+ post 1032); Vitale (+ 1007; Bishop of Torcello); Orso (+1045; Bishop of Torcello dal 1007 and Patriarch of Grado from 1018); other unknown sisters (all nuns). Pietro King of Hungary married, first, Tuta, daughter of Ruprecht Counte of Regensburg (+ post 1046), and later (5-1055) Judith, daughter of Enric Count of Schweinfurt, Gerberg and Gleisberg (+ 2-8-1058). Grandfather of Pitro of Hungary was Pietro II (* 961; + September 1008), Doge of Venezia (elected March 991; in 999 occuped Dalmatia and Istria; married Maria; in the picture), son of  Pietro I (+ 997), Doge of Venezia (from 12-8-976 to 1-9-978, abdicated; hasband of Felicia Malipiero), son of Pietro Orseolo, noble from Aquileia .

                   

1067-1075, Constantinople. The "Greek part" of the Holy Crown of Hungary is made as a gift of the Roman Emperor of Byzantium to the King Géza I (1074-77), called in the inscription on the Crown “Gueovicha, the loyal king of the Turks” (Geovitsas pistos krales tourkias: Geovitsas as Turkic equivalent of the Hungarian Gyeicha, later erroneously transformed in Géza; kral as Király, “King” in Hungarian).

 

1189, Buda. The German Emperor Frederick Barbarossa visited the Hungarian king Béla III in Óbuda. The German chronics reported this meeting as happened in the “Attila´s Castle” (Etzelen bürge, as it is called in the Nibelunghen). From this period we have the Hunnish-Magyar kinship “theory”. The Árpádian rulers´ claim to be descended from Attila is not identical with the notion of the Magyars´ descendent from the Huns. In the Middle Ages the rulers, the nobility, the feudal lords and the people were not necessarily of the same stock. The fact that the Magyar Ruler Dynasty decided to take some legitimating from Attila (considered in Europe as Flagellum Dei) can be explained as result of the fact that Attila had his centre of power in Pannonia and becouse of the recent steppe past of the Magyars (where was normal from the time of  Chingis Khan to claim to be a descendent of Attila).

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1241, Hungary. The Mongols (Tatars) devastated Hungary. Their presence, which lasted a year, halted development for at least a century.

 

1246-1270, Hungary. King Béla IV (1235-70; son of András II and Gertrúd of Meran/Merano; married Mária, daughter of the Roman Emperor in Byzantium, Laskaris Teodor of Nikaia; in the secon picture) starts the rebuilding of the country with the great help of the pagan Cumans (see the second picture, "Polovtsian (Russian name for Cumans) statues in the Krasnodar Historical-Archaeological Museum", from www.openweb.ru/rongo/)

 

1272-1290, Hungary. King of Hungary is Ladislaus the Cuman (IV. Kun László; in the pictures). 


1308, Buda. The French Anjou Dynasty (from Naples, Italy) on the Hungarian throne.

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1387-1437, The Imperial court in Buda. Reign of Zigismond of Luxemburg, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.

 

1458-1490, Hungary. The court of King Matthias Corvinus is a centre of the Florentine Renaissance art.

 

1541-1686, Buda is under the Turks. After the battle of Mohács (1526), Hungary was split into three parts. The Habsburg governed the western part of the country, the central area was ruled by the Turks. The Transylvanian principality for a long time was the citadel of Hungarian culture.

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1703-1711, Hungary. A freedom war under the leadership of Ferenc Rákóczi II, Prince of Transylvania, against the Habsburgs. The rebels defeated the Imperial army in several battles, but did not receive the promised French support and failed.

 

First half of the 19th century, Hungary. A national reform movement was launched for the political and economic transformation of the country. The main personality of these was Count István Széchenyi, who had clear ideas about the ways for the development of Hungary and the Danubian Europe.

 

1846, Hungary. Hungary is the last country in Europe to stop to use the Latin as official language.

 

1848-1849, Hungary. A revolution broke out in Pest, which extended over the entire country.  Habsburg Emperor was dethroned after the Hungarian army won several significant battles. Lajos Kossuth was elected Governor. The longest European national revolution  could only be oppressed in the summer of 1849 by the Habsburgs with the help of the Russian army (200.000 soldiers).

 

 

1848, Budapest. Blind baron Miklós Wesselényi (Zsibó, 30 December 1796 – Pest, 21st April 1850) goes to the Hungarian National Assembly and says these words: “The Future of Europe is darker than the Dark of my eyes. Only the Peace and Dialogue can save us. Our King Stephen the Saint was used to say to his son: happy the Nation that has many peoples. ... but today the peoples are angry and are one against the other. Rumanians deserve our special sympathy and We don´t have to refuse them the use of the name "Rumanian" because They are really descendents of Romans. Is their interest to unite with  us, because they - as we - are isolated in these regions" (Translated from the quotation made by C. Sassu, Director of the State Archive of Brassň, in his Romeni e Ungheresi. Fondamento storico dei loro rapporti, Bucuresti: Casa Editrice “Cugetarea – P. Georgescu-Delafras”, 1940, pp. 144-145)

 

1867, Austria-Hungary. The Hungarians concluded a compromise with the Habsburgs. A double-centred monarchy was set up with seats in Vienna and Pest-Buda. Industrial upswing started.

1873, Budapest. Pest, Buda and Obuda were unified: Budapest became a European metropolis. The buildings of that time -the Opera House, the National Gallery and Parliament - still determine the skyline of the city. The first subsurface underground railway on continental Europe was put into operation.

1886, Bayreuth, Germany. Ferenc (Franz) Liszt's death.

 

1904, Hungary. Béla Bartok began to record  and classify the Hungarian folk music.

 

1914-1918, Europe.  I World War: Austro-Hungarian monarchy is allied with Germany and Italy (in 1915 left the Alliance with Hungary). The many ethnical groups show loyalty to the Monarchy.

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1919, Hungary. Soviet regime in Hungary (in the photo the communist leader Béla Kun).

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1920, Paris. With the Trianon Treaty USA, UK and France reduced Hungary's area by two thirds and the population by one third. Since then, considerable Hungarian minorities lived in the neighbouring countries.

 

1923-28, Weimar and Dessau, Germany. Laszló Moholy-Nagy teach in the Bauhaus.

 

'20s-'40s, Hollywood. Many Hungarian directors (for example Michael Curtiz, famous for his Casablanca) and actors (for exemple Béla Lugosi, famous as Dracula) are working  in Hollywood.

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1938-1940, Hungary. Germany concluded treaties in Munich and Vienna, according to which Southern Slovakia and Northern Transylvania were returned to Hungary (In the photo Hitler with Hungarian delegation in 1939).

 

1944, Hungary.  The Nazis occupied Hungary, as they did not consider it a reliable ally.  Beginning of the persecutions of Gypsy and Jews. During the Second World War, the Hungarians suffered grave losses on the Soviet front.

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1945, Hungary. The Soviet Army liberated, then occupied Hungary. At the elections, the Communists gained only 17 percent of the votes (in the photo Soviet soldiers in Budapest).

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1947, Hungary. The last, relatively free election was followed by the years of Communist control: show trials, executions, forced settlement of hundreds of thousands, imprisonment, harassment, forced industrial development and Stalinist dictatorship.

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1956, Hungary. A revolution against Stalinism. The uprising was defeated by Soviet troops. János Kádár, who acquired power with their assistance, promised democratic socialism; in the meantime, retaliation and executions started.

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1965, Hungary.. The new system became consolidated, and cautious economic reforms were launched. Living standards were rising and the iron curtain became penetrable.

 

1988, Hungary. The Hungarian transition period began.

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1989, Hungarian border with Austria.  Hungarian border guards cut down a barbed wire fence from its support on May 2, 1989, as Hungary started dismantling its 221 miles of "Iron Curtain" border with Austria (AP Photo/Bernhard J. Holzner). It is the beginning of the end of the "Iron Curain" and the Wall in Berlin . 1990, Hungary. The Communist party voluntarily gave up its autocracy. A multi-party parliamentary democracy came into being in the country. The Soviet army left Hungary.

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1999, Hungary. Hungary became full member of the NATO after a democratic referendum (Hungary is the only country to have organized a NATO referendum).

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