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Some British Variables                       

Here is a link to a new page in British and Overseas Variables, still under construction, that will supercede this one.

This is an access page for some important linguistic variables in the British Isles. I shall be adding short sound files to the transcriptions - they are not to be taken as genuine examples of regional English, but as my approximations, the idea being to give my students a general idea of the variables concerned. In time, I hope to be able to include genuine examples.

In general, I follow Wells's (1982) terminology; this usually implies a change or a process leading to a change from some 'earlier' unchanged form - a merger or a split, or a process such as reduction, dropping, tensing, fronting, etc. This means that the examples are given in negative-positive pairs, first without (-) the change or process, then with (+) the change or process.



VOWELS
 
  
-
+
 
FLEECE Merger meat  meet map and sound
NURSE Merger earth work map and sound
FOOT-GOOSE Merger good mood
map and sound
Long Mid Mergers:
    FACE Merger
    GOAT Merger

daze days
nose knows

sound
Long Mid Diphthonging:
    FACE Diphthonging
    GOAT Diphthonging

play
road


sound
GOAT Fronting goat sound
Diphthong Shifts:
    FLEECE Shift
    FACE Shift
    PRICE Shift
    CHOICE Shift
    GOOSE Shift
    GOAT Shift
    MOUTH Shift

see
play
ride
boy
blue
road
house






>
>

> >



> >
>
(, )

 
 
 
sound
FOOT-STRUT Split cut  put     map and sound
TRAP-BATH Split gas  mask   
  
 
 
map and sound
HappY Tensing ready

sound

Weak Vowel Merger
(Lenin-Lennon Merger)
cabin  ribbon
culprit  carrot
visit  desert
 
 
 
 
 
 

sound
High Back Fronting:
   GOOSE Fronting
   FOOT Fronting

rude  moon
put  could

  
  

  
 

sound

Vowels

CONSONANTS
  
-
+
 
Glide Cluster Reduction which  way
white whale


sound
NG Coalescence
(G-Dropping)
long, singing sound
ING Variable doing anything sound
TH Fronting think
brother
this





qq
Yod Dropping
Generalized Yod Dropping
new duty
few


qq
Yod Coalescence due Tuesday qq
Rhoticity:
  R-Dropping (= non
    -rhoticity)
  R Insertion
 
  Partial Rhoticity

car park
 
far away
America always
park keeper


 



 


qq
L Vocalization
L Voc. Hyperadaption
field, people , ,
,
qq
H Dropping
H Hyperadaption
house
ancient


qq
Glottalization lot, match, matress , , , , qq
Glottalling
(Full Glottalling)
lot, better
(happy, ticket)
,
,
,
, ,
qq

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If you have any questions mail me at peturk@hi.is.