back to ENS 207 G English Dialects
   English Accent Variables
This is an access page for some important linguistic variables in the British Isles and Overseas. It's under construction.

Link to the older page on British Variables

In general, I follow Wells's (1982) structure and terminology, with some minor changes and additions (e.g. Full Happy Tensing or Nappies Tensing; NT Coalescence).

The grey links  will turn red when they're completed.
Yellow links are operative, but incomplete and provisional.

General note on Processes


  Variable Name   Sounds concerned   Areas concerned   Further details
*** foot-strut Split strut words Everywhere except Central and Northern England
*** bath-trap Split bath words Southern England
*** The trap vowel bath and trap vowels British Isles
*** foot goose Merger foot and goose words Scotland and Northern Ireland
*** nurse Merger nurse words Scotland
** Long Mid Diphthonging: face and goat words South of England + Southern Hemisphere vs. the rest of the words. Mixed in America
*  Long Mid Mergers face and goat rarely unmerged: British Isles
*** goat Fronting  goat words Southern England, America, Southern Hemisphere
*** Diphthong Shifts fleece face proce choice goose goat mouth South of England, Southern Henisphere
* fleece Merger fleece words spelled with <ea> middle North of England
*** Happy Tensing
Full Happy Tensing
city hurry create
cities hurried
Most accents except N.England and some American
*** Weak Vowel Merger
(Lenin-Lennon Merger)
weak vowels everywhere: least common in S.English dialects
** High Back Fronting: goose and foot S. England, S. Hemisphere
* lot-cloth Split lot and cloth E. America, some older S.Eng accents including conserevative RP.
*** lot Unrounding
(= lot-palm Merger)
lot N. America, SW England, Ireland
** thought--lot Merger thought and lot Scotland
** thought-palm -lot Merger thought N. America
** Marry Merry Mary Merger trap dress square before r N. America
** price-mouth Raising price and mouth Canada
** trap Raising trap (and bath) N: America
* pin-pen Merger kit and dress before nasals America: Southern States
* price Monophthonging price America: Southern States
*** Front Vowel Raising trap dress and kit S. Hemisphere
** kit centring kit S. Hemisphere
* kit Split kit S. Africa
*** near-square Monophthonging near and square S. Hemisphere, N. England
** near-square Merger near and square India, Africa
* north-force Merger north America


*** Rhoticity:
  R-Dropping (= non-rhoticity)
  R Insertion
  Partial Rhoticity
*** H Dropping England
*** NG Coalescence W Central England
*** ING Variable throughout
*** L Vocalization S England, S Hemisphere
** Light L Darkening Scotland, America
* Dark L Lightening Ireland or English Hyperadaption
*** Glottalization England, S Hemisphere
*** T Glottalling England
* PK Glotalling (Full Glotalling) London
*** Glide Cluster Reduction Scotland, America
*** TH Fronting , London
*** T Voicing America
** NT Coalescence America
*** Yod Coalescence S England
*** Yod Dropping America
* P T K Deaspiration S Africa

  "Lazy" check-marks:
   we'll discuss them in class!


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