courses

Ptur Kntsson, University of Iceland

   Phoneme correspondences between Old English and Icelandic

Vowel correspondences with Icelandic

1 a = a faran = fara, dagas = dagar, mann = maður

    = ö with u-mutation: dagum = dögum, fatu = föt
2 á = ei án = einn, bád = beið, gát = geit, wát = veit

    = á swá = svá>svo, þá = þá, mágas = mágar
3 æ = a dæg = dagur, bæc = bak, þæt = það, hwæt = hvað, æcer = akur, fæder = faðir cwæð = kvað
4 ǽ = á bǽron = bárum, cwǽdon = kváðuð, rǽdon = ráðu
5 e = e beran = bera, weg = vegur, lecgan = leggja, benc = bekkur
6 é = é hér = hér

   = bc = bkur,

   = gld = gl

w = vo cwn = kvon, wnan = vona
7 i = i biddan = bija, w ridon = vr rium
8 = btan = bta, s = s, hwt = hvtu
9 o = o word = or, botm = botn, hors = hross, forst = frost

    = a occasionally: monn = mann, lond = land, lomb = lamb

    = with u-mutation: hond = hnd, lond = lnd

ol = l folc = flk
10 = bc = bk, bror = brir, fr = fr

    = mna = mni, nmon = nmu
       = dm/dman = dmur/dma
11 u = u hund = hundur, fugol = fugl, druncon=drukku


Note wulf = lfur, sunu = sonur, cuman = koma
12 = hs = hs, ms = ms send = sund

= unn m = munnur, c = kunnur
13 y = y cynn = kyn, brycg = bryggja( = br), lyge = lygi

y/ie = e ieldra = eldri, giefan = gefa, giest = gestur


Note giefu = gjf, scyld = skjldur
14 = ms = ms, rman = rma

    = brd = brur, hd = h

e/ = ey heran = heyra, began = beygja, nedan = neya

    = au ned = nau, cepan = kaupa, ecan = auka
15 ea = a eall = allur, ceald = kaldur,sceal = skal,bearn = barn

    = with u-mutation: ealu = l, bearn = brn
16 a = au cas = kaus, da = daui, age = auga, brad = brau

= ey are = eyra

    = gafon = gfu, gar = r, hah = hr, tar = tr

    = daw = dgg, hawan = hggva
17 eo = e weoran = vera, sweord = sver, weorc = verk

    = j,ja eore = jr, beorg = bjrg, eorl = jarl,ceorl = karl


Note meolc = mjlk
18 o = j cosan = kjsa, sodan = sja, of = jf

    = j cropan = krjpa, lof = ljfur, dop = djpur

    = e cno = hn, tro = tr, foh = f, folan = fela


Also: son = sj, fores = fjr, fond = fjandi

Effects of i-mutation: sometimes an i-mutated vowel in OE
corresponds to a non-mutated vowel in Icelandic, or vice-versa

i-mutation in OE i-mutation in Icelandic
> e a > e
a > --
an,am > en,em --
> ǽ >
o > e o > e
> >
u > y u > y
> >
ea > ie/y --
a > e/ au > ey
eo > ie/y --
o > e/ j >

i, , e and are not affected by i-mutation in either language

Consonant correspondences with Icelandic

b, l, m, n, p, s, t, are usually unchanged in Icelandic.

OE pron. Ice
c [k] k cætte = kttur, cú = kýr

[ʧ]
before e & i: cyrice = kirkja, céap(cheap) = kaup
cg [ʤ] gg ecg(edge) = egg, hrycg(ridge) = hrygg
nc [ŋk,ŋʧ] kk drincan = drekka, benc = bekkur
þ/ð
þ/ð used interchangeably: þing/ðing = þing, bróðor/bróþor = bróðir
f [f,v] f feallan = falla, léaf = lauf

 
medially: ofer = yfir,heafod = höfuð
g [g] g gd  = góður

[ɣ] g dagum  = dögum

[j] g geard  = garður

[j] geong  = ungur, gar = ár
d [d,ð] d,ð dimm = dimmur, flód = flóð
w [w] v wæter = vatn, wearðan = verða


worm = ormur, word = orð, wulf=úlfur
hw [ʍ] hv hwæt = hvað, hwít = hvítur