Páll Jakobsson, Professor, Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, University of Iceland


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Dark GRBs

This webpage is intended to update the dark burst diagram first presented in ApJ Letter. The diagram serves as a simple and quick diagnostic tool for identifying dark GRBs based on limited information, particularly useful for early and objective identification of dark GRBs observed with the Swift satellite. The diagram (shown below) displays the optical flux vs. X-ray flux for a total of 135 bursts, i.e. bursts which have a reported X-ray afterglow (and a reported X-ray flux). The magnitudes have been corrected for Galactic extinction. Filled symbols indicate optical detections, while open symbols are upper limits. Lines of constant βOX are shown with the corresponding value. Dark bursts are defined as those that have βOX < 0.5, i.e. that are optically subluminous with respect to the fireball model.




Many thanks to Alex Kann for frequent update reminders and data collecting. However, I will not update this page anymore. The final version of this figure was published in a Fynbo et al. paper.

Update (05 April 2006):

GRB Satellite (X-ray) βOX Optical detection? Reference
060323 Swift 0.67 Detection Vetere et al. (GCN#4910); Covino et al. (GCN#4911)
060319 Swift < 0.43 Upper limit Beardmore et al. (GCN#4895); D'Avanzo et al. (GCN#4890)
060312 Swift < 0.76 Upper limit Grupe et al. (GCN#4862); Schaefer et al. (GCN#4860)
060306 Swift < 0.30 Upper limit Page et al. (GCN#4850); Price et al. (GCN#4854)
060223B Swift < 1.32 Upper limit Perri et al. (GCN#4835); Andreev et al. (GCN#4844)
060219 Swift < 0.41 Upper limit Moretti et al. (GCN#4797); Rol et al. (GCN#4855)
060211B Swift < 0.83 Upper limit Page et al. (GCN#4745); Salyamov et al. (GCN#4744)
060211A Swift < 1.04 Upper limit Hurkett et al. (GCN#4740); Sharapov et al. (GCN#4927)
060210 Swift 0.13 Detection Beardmore et al. (GCN#4733); Stanek et al. (astro-ph/0602495)
060206 Swift 0.60 Detection Morris et al. (GCN#4764); Stanek et al. (astro-ph/0602495)
060204B Swift 0.69 Detection Falcone et al. (GCN#4669); Guidorzi et al. (GCN#4661)
060203 Swift 0.61 Detection Morris et al. (GCN#4651); Malesani et al. (GCN#4645)
060202 Swift < -0.43 Upper limit Morris et al. (GCN#4632); Monfardini et al. (GCN#4630)
060124 Swift 0.64 Detection Kann et al. (in prep)
060121 Swift 0.27 Detection Mangano et al. (GCN#4565); Fynbo et al. (GCN#4555)
060116 Swift < 0.47 Upper limit (in R) Campana et al. (GCN#4529); D'Avanzo et al. (GCN#4532)
060115 Swift 0.70 Detection Perri et al. (GCN#4514); Yanagisawa et al. (GCN#4517)
060111B Swift 0.62 Detection Perri et al. (GCN#4498); Yanagisawa et al. (GCN#4496)
060111A Swift 0.82 Detection Goad et al. (GCN#4481); Khamitov et al. (GCN#4494)
060110 Swift 0.99 Detection Page et al. (GCN#4525); Swan et al. (GCN#4491)
060109 Swift < 0.85 Upper limit Page et al. (GCN#4466); Blustin et al. (GCN#4461)
060108 Swift 0.19 Detection Page et al. (GCN#4453); Monfardini et al. (GCN#4502)
060105 Swift < 0.62 Upper limit Godet et al. (GCN#4433); Izumiura et al. (GCN#4430)
051227 Swift 0.52 Detection Beardmore et al. (GCN#4402); Berger (GCN#4410)
051221A Swift 0.96 Detection Capalbi et al. (GCN#4374); Soderberg et al. (astro-ph/0601455)
051117B Swift < 0.73 Upper limit Beardmore et al. (GCN#4304); Chen et al. (GCN#4285)
051111 Swift 1.23 Detection La Parola et al. (GCN#4261); Nanni et al. (GCN#4298)
051109B Swift < 0.56 Upper limit Tagliaferri et al. (GCN#4232); Huang et al. (GCN#4231)
051109A Swift 0.83 Detection Campana et al. (GCN#4229); Pavlenko et al. (GCN#4273)
051028 Swift 0.67 Detection Page et al. (GCN#4205); Castro-Tirado et al. (submitted)
051022 Swift < -0.11 Upper limit Butler et al. (GCN#4165); Cenko et al. (GCN#4134)
051021A Swift 0.69 Detection Racusin et al. (GCN#4125); Rumyantsev et al. (GCN#4159)
051016B Swift 0.63 Detection Godet et al. (GCN#4108); Sharapov et al. (GCN#4185)
051016A Swift < 0.77 Upper limit Beardmore et al. (GCN#4100); Berger et al. (GCN#4098)
051008 Swift -0.20 Detection Perri et al. (GCN#4080); Rumyantsev et al. (GCN#4087)
051001 Swift < 0.43 Upper limit Moretti et al. (GCN#4056); Tristram et al. (GCN#4055)
050922C Swift 0.87 Detection Kennea et al. (GCN#4022); Jakobsson et al. (in prep)
050922B Swift < 0.76 Upper limit Godet et al. (GCN#4031); Guziy et al. (GCN#4025)
050916 Swift < 1.80 Upper limit Morris et al. (GCN#3996); Brown et al. (GCN#4004)
050915A Swift < 0.31 Upper limit (in R) Grupe et al. (GCN#3983); Cenko et al. (GCN#3981)
050908 Swift 1.09 Detection Goad et al. (GCN#3952); Sharapov et al. (GCN#4049)
050904 Swift < 0.43 Upper limit (in R) Watson et al. (ApJ, 637, L69); Haislip et al. (astro-ph/0509660)
050827 Swift < 0.61 Upper limit Capalbi et al. (GCN#3899); Halpern (GCN#3900)
050826 Swift 1.27 Detection Mangano et al. (GCN#3889); Halpern (GCN#3891)
050824 Swift 0.95 Detection Campana et al. (GCN#3872); J. Fynbo (private comm.)
050822 Swift < 0.35 Upper limit Godet et al. (GCN#3873); Page et al. (GCN#3859)
050820A Swift 0.72 Detection Page et al. (GCN#3837); MacLeod et al. (GCN#3863)
050819 Swift < 0.66 Upper limit Page et al. (GCN#3832); Bikmaev et al. (GCN#3831)
050814 Swift 0.36 Detection Morris et al. (GCN#3805); Jensen et al. (GCN#3809)
050803 Swift < 0.50 Upper limit Racusin et al. (GCN#3752); Brown et al. (GCN#3759)
050802 Swift 0.40 Detection Capalbi et al. (GCN#3740); McGowan et al. (GCN#3745)
050801 Swift 0.87 Detection Perri et al. (GCN#3731); Blustin et al. (GCN#3733)
050730 Swift 0.77 Detection Perri et al. (GCN#3722); Klotz et al. (GCN#3720)
050726 Swift 0.50 Detection Moretti et al. (GCN#3683); Poole et al. (GCN#3698)
050724 Swift 1.03 Detection Romano et al. (GCN#3669); Berger et al. (Nature, 438, 988)
050721 Swift 0.91 Detection Romano et al. (GCN#3659); D'Avanzo et al. (GCN#3658)
050717 Swift < 0.28 Upper limit Hurkett et al. (GCN#3636); Blustin et al. (GCN#3638)
050713B Swift < 0.21 Upper limit Page et al. (GCN#3602); Lin et al. (GCN#3593)
050713A Swift 0.17 Detection Morris et al. (GCN#3606); Wren et al. (GCN#3604)
050712 Swift 0.90 Detection Grupe et al. (GCN#3579); Zeh et al. (GCN#3646)
050709 Chandra 1.10 Detection Fox et al. (GCN#3585); Hjorth et al. (Nature, 437, 859)
050607 Swift 0.31 Detection D. Watson (private comm.); E. Rol (private comm.)
050603 Swift 1.07 Detection Berger & McWilliam (GCN#3511); Grupe et al. (GCN#3519)
050525A Swift 0.85 Detection Blustin et al. (ApJ, 637, 901); Aslan et al. (GCN#3493)
050520 Swift < 1.13 Upper limit Perri et al. (GCN#3443); Allen et al. (GCN#3439)
050509C Chandra 0.92 Detection Fox et al. (GCN#3442); Gorosabel et al. (GCN#3425)
050509B Swift < 1.11 Upper limit Gehrels et al. (Nature, 437, 851)
040827 XMM 0.92 Detection De Luca et al. (astro-ph/0505261); Bloom et al. (astro-ph/0505480)
050421 Swift < 1.36 Upper limit Berger et al. (ApJ, 634, 501); Blustin et al. (GCN#3307)
050416A Swift 0.59 Detection Berger et al. (ApJ, 634, 501)
050412 Swift < 0.05 Upper limit Mangano et al. (GCN#3253): Kosugi et al. (GCN#3263)