GUÐRÚN MARTEINSDÓTTIR , Rannsóknir
 

2007-2009

Samkeppnissjóður: Kortlagning líffræðilegs fjölbreytileika þorsks með áherslu á atferli í tengslum við æxlun og far

Markmið: Auka skilning á þáttum sem hafa áhrif á hrygningu, klak og nýliðun þorsksins. Á fyrsta ári verkefnisnins verður megin áhersla lögð á að: a) skrásetja hrygningaratferli þorsks við náttúrulegar aðstæður með hjálp nýustu tækni; b) lýsa atferlinu og bera það saman við rannsóknir í kerjum; c) skrásetja staðsetningu og stærð hrygningarsvæða sem og svipfarseiginleika hrygnandi þorsks á hinum mismunandi svæðum við landið; d) bera saman vöxt hjá mismunandi lífssöguhópum af þorski og meta hvort hægt er að flokka þorsk í hópa eftir vaxtarmynstri í kvörnum

2006-2008

AVS - Aukin arðsemi humarveiða

Markmið: Auka arðsemi humarveiða með því að skoða þá þætti sem hafa áhrif á nýtingu og gæði humars úr sjó sem og áhrif veiðafæra, strauma og sjávarróts á botngerð og búsvæði á humarslóð

2005-2006

AVS - Áhrif eldis á umhverfi og villta stofna

Markmið: Meta stöðu þekkingar á sem flestum þáttum sem tengjast áhrifum eldis á umhverfi og villta fiskstofna. Í þessu sambandi verður settur saman faghópur sem mun leggja fram tillögu að áframhaldandi rannsóknavinnu til að veita stjórnvöldum upplýsingar og ráðgjöf um framkvæmd fiskeldis á Íslandi. Sérstök áhersla verður lögð á þætti er tengjast hugsanlegum hættum sem villtum stofnum og umhverfi getur stafað af fiskeldi.

 

2005-2006

AVS - Hrygningaratferli og mökunartíðni eldis og villtra þorska

Megin tilgangur þessa forverkefnis er að meta aðstæður til rannsókna á hrygningaratferli þorsks í Þistilfirði. Sambærilegar rannsóknir á hrygningu þorsks við náttúrulegar aðstæður hafa ekki verið framkvæmdar áður, hvorki hér heima né erlendis. Niðurstöðurnar verða notaðar til að móta stærra verkefni sem mun hafa það markmið að meta hæfni eldisfisks til að makast við villta fiska. Stefnt er að því að kvikmynda hrygningu þorsks í Þistilfirði í vor, 2005. Unnið verður úr myndunum og atferli þorskanna borið saman við fyrri niðurstöður úr rannsóknum á hrygningaratferli þorska í eldiskerjum. Rannsóknirnar verða gerðar í samvinnu við Jeffry Hutchings og Sherrylynn Rowe við Dalhousie University, en þau hafa langa reynslu af slíkum athugunum og eiga mikið af niðurstöðum úr rannsóknum á hrygningu þorsks í eldi.

 

2005-2008

FishACE Marie Curie Research Training Network.
http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/ADN/FishACE

Objective: Strategically, this European Research Training Network will maintain and extend the leading position of Euro-pean research in the application of evolutionary theory to exploited ecosystems: so far, European researchers have been at the forefront of bringing this topic to the awareness of the scientific community and of devising first operational tools for tackling the relevant scientific and managerial problems. The network’s overall objec-tive can be broken down into research on three cross-cutting themes:

Theme 1. Systematic empirical evaluation of the extent of fisheries-induced adaptive changes in the Euro-pean seas, forming the basis for assessing the need and acuteness of managerial interventions.

Theme 2. Development of dynamical models and statistical tools required for detecting and quantifying fisheries-induced adaptations in the wild, as well as for evaluating management strategies devised for cop-ing with adaptive change.

Theme 3. Design of innovative and practically valuable management tools, including the evaluation of suit-able reference points facilitating the evolutionarily sustainable utilization of living marine resources.
These cross-cutting themes and their interactions are illustrated in the figure at the bottom of page 2. The work to be conducted within this network is organised along nine mutually illuminating research tasks, each of which includes salient elements of the three central themes mentioned above. The first five of these research tasks are focused on investigating fisheries-induced adaptive changes in specific stocks:

 

2006-2007 GENIMPACT - Evaluation of genetic impact of aquaculture activities on
native populations – A European network

https://genimpact.imr.no

Objective: The objective of ‘Genimpact’ is to integrate current knowledge about the genetic impact of
aquaculture, identify on-going projects in this area and define future research priorities. The
project will also provide recommendations for management options for the aquaculture
industry in order to minimize the genetic impact of aquaculture activities. The project
proposes to produce a web page to facilitate public access to the results and reports of this
project, including consensus statements on the genetic impact of farming activities and its
implications for aquaculture management, stock conservation and environment safety, to
discuss the results with representatives of the aquaculture industry, environmental, consumer
and animal welfare organizations, and to disseminate the results in scientific and lay language
among scientific audiences, NGOs, policy makers and the media.

 

2001-2006

METACOD - THE ROLE OF SUB-STOCK STRUCTURE IN THE MAINTAINANCE OF COD METAPOPULATIONS (Verkefni styrkt af Evrópusambandinu: QLRT - 2000 - 00953).

http://www.hafro.is/metacod

Verkefnið er styrkt af Evrópusambandinu ber heitið ,,Hlutverk undirstofna í viðhaldi þorskstofnsins" (The role of sub-stock structure in the maintainance of cod metapopulations). Þetta er samvinnuverkefni íslensku, skosku og dönsku hafrannsóknastofnananna ásamt Háskólanum í Hamborg. Verkefnið kostar í heild sinni 6,2 milljónir evra eða um 525 milljónir íslenskra króna. Styrkur ESB til verkefnisins er um 3,3 milljónir evra. Þar af renna 1,4 milljónir evra til rannsókna á Íslandi eða um 120 milljónir íslenskra króna.

Aðalmarkmið verkefnisins er að auka þekkingu á stofngerð þorsks við Ísland og þar með að gera það kleift að meta hlut ólíkra hrygningareininga í nýliðun og veiðistofninum hverju sinni ásamt því að þróa stærðfræðilegan grunn fyrir ráðgjöf um stofnstærð og fjölbreytileika undirstofna þorsks

Helstu undirmarkmið eru:

  • Kortleggja útbreiðslu hrygnandi þorsks og safna upplýsingum um samsetningu og eiginleika hrygningarhópa og umhverfisþætti sem hafa áhrif á afkomu ungviðis á hverjum stað.
  • Meta eggjaframleiðslu einstakra hrygningarhópa.
  • Meta erfðafræðilegan breytileika einstakra hrygningarhópa.
  • Aðskilja hrygningarhópa eftir útliti og efnasamsetningu kvarna.
  • Meta framlag einstakra hrygningarhópa til eftirlifandi seiða að hausti.
  • Kanna far og útbreiðslu ungviðis, m.a. með merkingum og meta hvort ungþorskur sækir aftur á sína heimaslóð til hrygningar þegar hann verður kynþroska.
  • Kanna far, útbreiðslu og tryggð kynþroska þorsks við hrygningarstöðvar.
  • Meta hlutdeild einstakra hrygningarhópa í samsetningu veiðistofns hverju sinni.
  • Meta áhrif stofnsamsetningar og umhverfisþátta á nýliðun þorsks.
  • Meta áhrif stofnsamsetningar á niðurstöður tengdar mati á stofnstærðum.

2000-2004

STOFNGERÐ ÞORKS (verkefni styrkt af RANNÍS)

Markmið þessa verkefnis er að auka þekkingu á stofngerð þorsks við Ísland og þar með að gera það mögulegt að meta hlut ólíkra hrygningareininga í nýliðun og veiðistofninum hverju sinni. Þekking á erfðasamsetningu þorsks við Ísland er ekki nægjanleg, þar sem stærstur hluti þorsks við Ísland er ennþá ókannaður. Rannsóknir sem hafnar eru á Hafrannsóknastofnuninni benda til að ólíkar hrygningareiningar finnist við landið og að framlag einstaka hrygningarsvæða til nýliðunar sé breytilegt. Aukin þekking á stofnsamsetningu þorsks við landið nýtist við fiskveiðiráðgjöf ásamt því að hafa áhrif á ráðgjöf um verndun hrygnignarsvæða á hrygningartíma

Starfsmenn verkefnisins:HAFRÓ/HÍ: Guðrún Marteinsdóttir, Ingibjörg Jónsdóttir (Ph.D. nemi), Gróa Pétursdóttir (MS nemi og aldursgreiningar), Kristinn Sigmundsson (verðandi MS nemi); HAFRÓ: Anna Danielsdóttir og Magnus Stefánsson (erfðafræði), Héðinn Valdimarsson (Straumar og umhverfi), Höskuldur Björnssson (ráðgjöf við líkanagerð), Björn Gunnarsson (seiðarannsóknir), Aðalbjörg Jónsdóttir (aldursgreiningar). CRC, Reef Research Institute, Australia: Gavin Begg; Bedford Institute, Kanada: Steve Campana & David Brickman.


1999-2002

STEREO - COD RECRUITMENT PROCESSES - INTEGRATING STOCK AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS (Styrkt af Evrópusambandinu: FAIR-PL98-4122)


This project is a continuation of the EU funded project FAIR-CT95-0084 and the program on Cod Reproduction and Recruitment started in 1993. Main objectives include integration of stock and environmental effects in an effort to hindcast the effective reproductive potential of Icelandic cod and reanalyze stock-recruitment data by substituting reproductive output for spawning biomass. In the analyses, emphasis has been put on: 1) production of new biological reference points to be used for short-term projections of reproductive potential, based on relationships between spawning time and duration, egg production, egg viability and female age, size and condition; 2) Determine the influence of environmental factors on the size and age-specific geographical distribution of the cod spawning stock. Explore the causes for historic changes in spawning stock distribution; 3) Model the effects of spawning stock structure and spatio-temporal factors on recruitment of cod, including the effects of fishing on stock structure, the influence of physical factors on demographic characteristics of the spawning stock, and the spatio-temporal variation in egg production; 4) Explore spatial and temporal structure in the dispersal and survival of cod eggs and larvae. Identify and parameterize physical processes that influence temporal and spatial variability in egg and larval dispersal and advection; 5) Determine the relative contribution of the different spatial and temporal components of the annual egg production to the surviving juvenile population; 6) Hindcast the effective reproductive output of the Icelandic cod stock and reanalyze the stock-recruitment data.


1999-2002

SAMVERKANDI ÁHRIF STOFNS OG UMHVERFIS Á NÝLIÐUN ÞORSKS (Styrkt af RANNÍS).

This project is based on the EU-funded project "STEREO" (see above). It has many of the same objectives with, however, an additional emphasis on environmental factors. As such, it includes an intensive field program focusing on the collection of environmental and plankton data and employment of great number of satellite trackers on the main spawning grounds and along the larval drift route west of the country.


1996-1998
RECRUITMENT PROCESSES IN COD AND HADDOCK: DEVELOPING NEW APPROACHES. Styrkt af Evrópusambandinu: FAIR-CT95-0084 og Sjávarútvegsráðuneytinu. (Stutt Yfirlit)
.

This project was a continuation of the program on Cod Reproduction and Recruitment started in 1993. The main focus was on the influence of spawning stock structure on recruitment, including first attempts to estimate the amplitude and spatial distribution of egg production in selected spawning areas.


1996

Ástand, vöxtur og aldurssamsetning þorsklirfa á hrygningarslóð (Verkefni styrkt af RANNÍS, 95193)


1993 - Present
A Research program on the Reproduction and Recruitment of cod in Icelandic waters was started in 1993. The Program was initiated and funded by the Ministry of Fisheries, The Icelandic Freezing Plants Corporation, Union of Icelandic Fish Products, the Fisheries Investment Fund of Iceland, Federation of Icelandic Fishing Vessel Owners and the Icelandic Research Council.

Initially the main focus of the program was on the influence of stock structure on recruitment processes in cod. Main objectives involved exploration how the age, size and condition of female spawners affected reproductive potential and successful attempts were made to determine the effects of changing stock structure, including age composition and spawning stock size, on the recruitment of cod in Icelandic waters. Experimental laboratory facilities for rearing of eggs and larvae were designed and constructed and the influence of maternal factors on the size and viability of cod eggs and larvae was studied in a controlled environment. Field work involved continuous sampling of spawning cod during the spawning season in many areas and analysis of the data was used to demonstrate the relationship between spawning time and duration, egg production, egg viability and female age, size and condition.

Studies on the distribution and dispersal of eggs and larvae on the main spawning grounds were initiated in 1995. Annual sampling of eggs and larvae together with information on the physical environment has continued to the present. Laboratory facilities for the exploration of otolith microstructure were established in 1995. Sampling of larvae and pelagic 0-goup juveniles for the estimation of growth rates and temporal and spatial origin of pelagic 0-group juveniles based on back-calculated hatch- and spawning-date distributions, started in 1995 and has continued annually until the present.


1991-1993
Distribution and population dynamics of the Greenland halibut. Initiation of surveys that later developed into the autumn ground fish survey. Changes in stock structure and abundance during high fishing effort. Aging and stock assessment in 1991-1993.

1990-1991
Distribution and abundance of the female lumpsucker. Modeling of the annual, seasonal and daily variation in catch per unit effort in coastal areas around Iceland.

1990
Mortality of Eiders cought by gill-nets employed by the lumpsucker fishery. Mortality estimates based on fisherman's log-books.

1990-1991
Genetic and morphological variation within and between Atlantic salmon populations. Funded by the Icelandic Research Council. Designed and established a laboratory for stock discrimination including facilities for genetic and morphological analysis. Stocks from 32 Icelandic rivers and three fish farms were analyzed. Genetic data was obtained with electrophoresis and the morphological analysis was based on distances within a size-free shape Truss network.

1989-1990
Institute of Freshwater Fisheries and the Marine Research Institute. Morphometrical discrimination between parrs of three Atlantic salmon stocks through metamorphosis. Funded by the Icelandic Science Council. Morphological and meristic comparisons were made between salmon parrs at different developmental stages originating from rivers of different physical characteristics.

1983-1986
Center for Coastal and Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, NJ, USA. Research on reproduction and recruitment mechanism of coastal fishes.

1984
Center for Coastal and Environmental Sciences, NJ, USA. Investigation of Management Alternatives for the Herring River Estuary (Cape Cod National Seashore, USA, National Parks).