Old Norse -> Reader -> Krkuml

Krkuml

Edited by Haukur orgeirsson 2001-2003

1

Hjuggum vr me hjrvi,
hitt var fyr lngu
er Gautlandi gengum
at grafvitnis mori;
fengum vr ru
aan htu mik fyrar
er lynglun lagak
Lobrk at v vgi.
Stakk storar lykkju,
stli bjartra mla.
Word		POS	Form		Dict. form	Meaning		English cognate

hjuggum		verb	pret. 1p. pl.	hggva		hewed		hewed
vr		pron.	nom. pl.	vr		we		we
me		prep.	-		me		with		-
hjrvi		noun	dat. sg. masc.	hjrr		sword		-
hitt		pron.	nom. sg. neut.	hinn		that		(it)
var		verb	pret. 3p. sg.	vera		was		was
		adv.	- 				*		-
fyr		prep.	-		fyr(ir)		*		for
lngu		adj.	dat. sg. neut.	langr		*		long
er		conj.	-		er		when		-
		prep.	-				in		on
Gautlandi	noun	dat. sg. neut.	Gautland	-		-
gengum		verb	pret. 1p. pl.	ganga		(we) walked	gang (Scots)
at		prep.	-		at		to		at
graf-vitnis	noun.	gen. sg. neut.	graf-vitnir	worm's **	-
mori		noun.	dat. sg. neut.	mor		murder		murder
		prep.	-				then		then
fengum		verb	pret. 1p. pl.	f		(we) got	-
ru		noun	gen. sg. fem.	ra		-		-
aan		adv.	-		aan		thence		(thence)
htu		verb	pret. 3p. pl.	heita		called		hight (archaic)
mik		pron.	acc. sg.	ek		me		(me)
fyrar		noun	nom. pl. masc.	fyrar		people		-
lyng-lun	noun	acc. sg. masc.	lyng-lunn	**		-
laga-k		verb	pret. 1p. sg.	leggja + ek	killed		laid
Lo-brk	noun	acc. sg. fem.	Lobrk		furry-pants	-
at		prep.	-		at		at		at
v		pron.	dat. sg. neut.	at		that		that
vgi		noun	dat. sg. neut.	vg		killing		-
stakk		verb	pret. 1p. sg.	stinga		stabbed		stung
		prep	-				into		in(to)
storar		noun	gen. sg. fem.	stor		earth's		-
lykkju		noun	acc. sg. fem.	lykkja		loop **		-
stli		noun	dat. sg. neut.	stl		steel		steel
bjartra		adj.	gen. pl. neut.	bjartr		bright		(bright)
mla		noun. 	gen. pl. neut.	ml		unknown ***	-
* The phrase " fyr lngu" means something like "ever so long ago".
** Kennings for serpent. Literally "dig-wolf", "heather-fish" and "earth's loop".
*** Possibly "decorations". In any case "steel of bright ml" means "spear".

Literal translation:

We swung our sword; that was ever so long ago when we walked in Gautland to the murder of the dig-wulf. Then we received ra; since then (at that battle when I killed the heather-fish) people called me Furry-pants. I stabbed the spear into the loop of the earth.

Translation from Runic Poetry

We fought with swords: when in Gautland I slew an enourmous serpent: my reward was the beauteous Thora. Thence I was deemed a man: they called me Lodbrog from that slaughter. I thrust the monster through with my spear, with the steel productive of splendid rewards.

2

Hjuggum vr me hjrvi.
Heldr var ek ungr, er skfum
austr Eyrasundi
undarn frekum vargi,
ok ftgulum fogli
fengum vr, ar er sungu
vi hseymda hjlma
hr jrn mikils verar;
allr var gir sollinn,
hrafn valbli.
Word		POS	Form			Dict. form	Meaning		Cognate

heldr		adv.	-			heldr		rather		-
var		verb	pret. 1p. sg.		vera		was		was
ek		pron.	nom. 1p. sg.		ek		I		I
ungr		adj.	nom. sg. masc.		ungr		young		young
skfum		verb	pret. 1p. pl.		skfa		slice		-
austr		adv.	-			austr		east		east
Eyra-sundi	noun	dat. sg. neut.		Eyrasund	-		-
undarn		noun	acc. sg. neut.		undarn		meal		-
frekum		adj.	dat. sg. masc.		frekr		greedy		-
vargi		noun	dat. sg. masc.		vargr		wolf		(warg)
ok		conj.	-			ok		and		-
ft-gulum	adj.	dat. sg. masc.		ft-gulr	foot-yellow	foot-yellow
fogli		noun	dat. sg. masc.		fogl		bird		fowl	
fengum		verb	pret. 1p. pl.		f		give		-
ar er		conj.	-			ar er		where		-
sungu		verb	pret. 3p. pl.		syngja		sung		sung
vi		prep.	-			vi		by		with
h-seymda	adj.	acc. pl. masc.		hseymdr	high-nailed	high-seamed
hjlma		noun	acc. pl. masc.		hjlmr		helmet		helm
hr		adj.	nom. pl. neut.		harr		hard		hard
jrn		noun	nom. pl. neut.		jrn		iron		iron
mikils		adj.	gen. sg. masc.		mikill		great		much
verar		noun.	gen. sg. masc.		verr		meal		-
allr		adj.	nom. sg. masc.		allr		all		all
var		verb.	pret. 3p. sg.		vera		became		-
gir		noun	nom. sg. masc.		gir		sea		-
sollinn		adj.	nom. sg. masc.		sollinn		swollen		swollen
		verb	pret. 3p. sg.		vaa		wode		wode
hrafn		noun	nom. sg. masc.		hrafn		raven		raven
val-bli	noun	dat. sg. neut.		valbl		slain-blood	-

Literal translation

We swung our sword. I was rather young when we sliced a meal for a greedy wolf east in Eyrasund - and to the foot-yellow bird we gave a great meal where hard irons sung by high-nailed helmets. All the sea was swollen, a raven waded in the blood of the slain.

Translation from Runic Poetry

We fought with swords: I was very young, when towards the East, in the straights of Eirar, we gained rivers of blood for the ravenous wolf: ample food for the yellow footed fowl. There the hard iron sung upon the lofty helmets. The whole ocean was one wound. The raven waded in the blood of the slain.

3

Hjuggum vr me hjrvi.
Htt brum geira,
er tvtugir tlumk,
ok tr ruum va;
unnum tta jarla
austr fyr Dnu mynni;
gera fengum gnga
gisting at v vgi;
sveiti fell sollinn
s, tndi li vi.
Word		POS	Form			Dict. form	Meaning		Cognate

htt		adv.	-			htt		high(ly)	high
brum		verb	pret. 1p. pl.		bera		carried		bore
geira		noun	acc. pl. masc.		geirr		spears		-
tvtugir	verb	nom. pl. masc.		tvtugr		twenty		twenty
tldumk		verb	pret. 1p. pl. mv.	teljask		were counted	-
tr*		noun	acc. sg. masc.		trr		reputation	-
ruum		verb	pret. 1p. pl.		rja		smeared		(redden)
va		adv.	-			va		widely		wide(ly)
unnum		verb	pret. 1p. pl.		vinna		defeated	won
tta		numb.	-			tta		eight		eight
jarla		noun	acc. pl. masc.		jarl		lords		earls
fyr		prep.	-			fyr(ir)		by		for(e)
mynni		noun	dat. sg. neut.		mynni		river mouth	(mouth)
gera		noun	dat. sg. masc.		geri		wolf		-
fengum**	verb	pret. 1p. pl.		f		gave		-
gnga		adj.	acc. sg. fem.		gngr		enough		enough
gisting		noun	acc. sg. fem.		gisting		meal		(guest)
sveiti		noun	nom. sg. masc.		sveiti		blood		sweat
fell		verb	pret. 3p. sg.		falla		fell		fell
s		noun	acc. sg. masc.		sr		sea		sea
tndi		verb	pret. 3p. sg.		tna		lost		-
li		noun	nom. sg. neut.		li		people		-
vi		noun	dat. sg. fem.		vi		life		-
* Often emended to "tjr" meaning "sword".
** The first three stanzas show three different usages of the verb "f":
1. f + gen = gain someone as a bride, marry someone
2. f + dat + gen = give something to someone
3. f + dat + acc = give something to someone

Literal translation

We swung our sword. When we were counted twenty, then we carried our spears high and smeared our reputation widely [with blood]; we defeated eight lords east by Dna's mouth; then, at that battle, we gave enough of a meal to the wolf. Blood fell into the swollen sea, people lost [their] lives.

Translation from Runic Poetry

We fought with swords: we lifted high our lances; when I had numbered twenty years, and every where acquired great renown. We conquered eight barons at the mouth of the Danube. We procured ample entertainment for the eagle in that slaughter. Bloody sweat fell in the ocean of wounds. A host of men there lost their lives.

4

Hjuggum vr me hjrvi.
Heins kvnar var auit,
er Helsingja heimtum
til heimsala ins.
Lgum upp vu,
oddr ni bta,
ll var unda gjaldri
s roin heitu;
grenjai brandr vi brynjur,
bensildr klufu skjldu.
Word		POS	Form			Dict. form	Meaning		Cognate

Hins		noun	gen. sg. masc.		Hinn		-		-
kvnar		noun	gen. sg. fem.		kvn		wife		-
var		verb	pret. 3p. sg.		vera		became		-
auit						auit		"held"	-
Helsingja	noun	acc. pl. masc.		Helsingi	Helsings	-
heimtum		verb	pret. 1p. pl.		heimta		sent		(home)		
heim-sala	noun	acc. pl. masc.		heimsalir	home-halls	(home)
ins		noun	gen. sg. masc.		inn		Odin		(Odin)
Lgum		verb	pret. 1p. pl.		leggja		laid		laid	
upp		adv.	-			upp		up		up
lgum upp	phr
vu		noun	acc. sg. fem.		va		-		-
oddr		noun	nom. sg. masc.		oddr		point		-
ni		verb	pret. 3p. sg.		n		did		-
bta		verb	inf.			bta		bite		bite
ll		pron.	nom. sg. fem.		allr		all		all
unda		noun	gen. pl. fem.		und		wound		wound
gjaldri		noun	
		noun	nom. sg. fem.				river		-
s		pron.	nom. sg. fem.		s		that		(the)
roin		adj.	nom. sg. fem.		roinn		smeared		(reddened)
heitu		adj.	dat. sg. neut.		heitr		hot		hot
grenjai	verb	pret. 3p. sg.		grenja		cried		-
brandr		noun	nom. sg. masc.		brandr		sword		(brand)
brynjur		noun	acc. pl. fem.		brynja		byrnie/armour	byrnie	
ben-sildr	noun	nom. pl. fem.		bensild		wound-herring	-
klufu		verb	pret. 3p. pl.		kljfa		cleft		cleft
skjldu		noun	acc. pl. masc.		skjldr		shields		shields

Literal translation

We swung our sword. Hinn's wife was held when we sent the Helsingjar to inn's halls. We waded into va. A point did bite then. All that river became smeared with blood. A sword cried by the byrnies. Wound-herrings cleft shields.

Translation from Runic Poetry

We fought with swords: we enjoyed the fight, when we sent the inhabitants of Helsing to the habitation of the gods. We sailed up the Vistula. Then the sword acquired spoils: the whole ocean was one wound: the earth grew red with reeking gore: the sword grinned at the coats of mail: the sword cleft the shields asunder.

5

Hjuggum vr me hjrvi.
Hygg engan fru,
r Heflis hestum
Herrr styr felli.
Klfrat gis ndrum
annarr jarl inn frgri
lunda vll til lgis
langskipum san;
s bar siklingr va
snart fram styr hjarta.
Word		POS	Form			Dict. form	Meaning		Cognate
hygg		verb	pres. 1p. sg.		hyggja		I think		(hew)
engan		pron.	acc. sg. masc.		engi(nn)	no-one		(one)
		
fru
r		
Heflis		noun	gen. sg. masc.		Heflir		-		-
hestum		noun	dat. pl. masc.		hestr		horse		-
Herrr		noun	nom. sg. masc.		Herrr		-		-
styr		noun	dat. sg. masc.		styrr		battle		-
felli		verb	pret. 3p. sg. conj.	falla		fell		fall
klfr		
-at		negating particle
gis		noun	nom. gen. masc.		gir		sea		(awe?)
ndrum		noun	dat. pl. 
annarr
jarl		noun	nom. sg. masc.		jarl		lord		earl
frgri		adj.	nom. sg. masc. comp.	frgr		famous, great	-
lunda
vll
lgis
lang-skipum
san
s
bar		verb
siklingr	noun	nom. sg. masc.		siklingr	king		-
va		adv.	-			va		widely		wide
snart		adj.	acc. sg. neut.		snarr		brave		-
fram		prep.	-			fram		forward		-
hjarta		noun	acc. sg. neut.		hjarta		heart		heart
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