Solutions to Lesson Two
3.1 Translate the phrases into English
Sjá jarlarnir konungana.
The earls see the kings.
Álfrinn á knífa.
The elf has knives.
Úlfar heita ok vargar.
Wolves are also called wargs.
Baugana sjá menninir.
The people see the rings.
The ravens die.
3.2 Translate the phrases into Old Norse
The raven sees a hawk.
Hauk sér hrafninn.
The king hates thieves.
Konungrinn hatar þjófa.
A viking is called Erlingr.
Heitir víkingr Erlingr.
The earls are called Erlingr and Eiríkr.
Jarlarnir heita Erlingr ok Eiríkr.
You (pl.) are coming.
3.3 Translate the text into English
Norðmenn hafa konung; hann heitir Óláfr. Maðr heitir Eiríkr; hann er jarl ok víkingr. Óláf hatar Eiríkr. Óláfr á bát. Hann heitir Ormr. Nú sér Eiríkr bátinn. Segir hann: "Hér er bátrinn, er Óláfr á." Eiríkr hatar Óláf en hann tekr eigi bátinn, er Óláfr á. Hann bíðr. Óláfr kømr. Eiríkr segir: "Nú deyr þú, Óláfr konungr! Ek veg þik!" ok vegr Óláf. Óláfr segir: "Þú vegr mik! Ek dey! Á! Á!
[The] Norwegians have a king; he is called Olaf. A man is called Eric; he is an earl and a viking. Eric hates Olaf. Olaf has got a boat. It is called Worm. Now Eric sees the boat. He says: "Here is the boat that Olaf has." Eric hates Olaf but he doesn't take the boat that Olaf has. He waits. Olaf comes. Eric says: "Now you die, king Olaf! I'm killing you!" and kills Olaf. Olaf says: "You're killing me! I'm dying! Ah! Ah!
3.4 Translate the text into Old Norse
A man is called Eiríkr. He owns (some) helmets, (some) boats and a spear. He is a viking. He kills people and takes boats. But Eiríkr is not a thief. Thieves don't kill. Now Eiríkr sees Óláfr and the Serpent. He kills Óláfr and takes the Serpent.
Maðr heitir Eiríkr. Hann á hjálma, báta ok geir. Hann er víkingr. Vegr hann menn ok tekr báta. En Eiríkr er eigi þjófr. Þjófar vega eigi. Nú sér Eiríkr Óláf ok Orminn. Hann vegr Óláf ok tekr Orminn.
- It is very important to write "Nú sér Eiríkr..." and not "*Nú Eiríkr sér..." When a sentence begins with an adverb(ial phrase) the verb must be the next element.
3.5 Translate the play into English
Óláfr: Ek sé mann!
Maðr: Heill Óláfr konungr! Ek heiti Eiríkr ok ek em Íslendingr.
Óláfr: Heill Eiríkr!
Eiríkr: Hvárt sér þú orminn þar, konungr?
Óláfr: Eigi sé ek orm.
Eiríkr: En hann er hér!
[nú sér Óláfr orminn]
Óláfr: Ormr! Ek sé orm!
Ormr: Óláfr! Ek sé Óláf!
Eiríkr: Segir ormrinn "Óláfr"?
Ormr: Nei. Ormar mæla eigi.
[Óláfr ok Eiríkr flýja]
[Olaf is waiting.]
Olaf: I see a person!
[a person arrives]
Man: Hail king Olaf! My name is Eric and I'm an Icelander.
Olaf: Hail Eric!
Eric: Do you see the worm there, king?
Olaf: I don't see a worm.
Eric: But it's here!
[now Olaf sees the worm]
Olaf: A worm! I see a worm!
Worm: Olaf! I see [an] Olaf!
Eric: Does the worm say "Olaf"?
Worm: No. Worms don't talk.
[Olaf and Eric flee]
3.6 Translate the play into English
[Eiríkr, þjófr ok víkingr, sér Orm, bát er Óláfr á]
Eiríkr: "Þar er bátr!"
[Haukr, Íslendingr, mælir]
Haukr: "Óláfr á bátinn."
Óláfr: "Menn sé ek!"
Eiríkr ok Haukr: "Vit erum hér."
Óláfr: "Hvárt takið þit bátinn?"
Eiríkr ok Haukr: "Vit tökum hann eigi."
Óláfr: "Ormr heitir bátrinn. Ek á Orm"
[Eiríkr ok Haukr kalla]
E & H: "Úlfr! Úlfr! Þar er úlfr!"
Óláfr: "Úlfr? Ek hata úlfa!"
[Úlfr, Norðmaðr ok þjófr, kømr]
Óláfr: "Ek sé eigi úlf. Hvárt er hér úlfr?"
Úlfr: "Hér em ek, Óláfr konungr."
[Eiríkr, Haukr ok Úlfr taka bátinn ok flýja]
Óláfr: "Þjófar! Ek hata þjófa!"
E, H & Ú: "Vér erum víkingar, vér höfum bát er heitir Ormr!"
[Eric, a thief and a viking, sees Serpent, a boat which Olaf owns]
Eric: "There's a boat!"
[Hawk, an Icelander, speaks]
Hawk: "Olaf has the boat."
Olaf: "I see people!"
Eric and Hawk: "Here are the two of us."
Olaf: "Are you taking the boat?"
Eric and Hawk: "We two are not taking it."
Olaf: "The boat is called Serpent. I own Serpent."
[Eric and Hawk shout]
E & H: "Wolf! Wolf! There's [a] wolf!"
Olaf: "[A] wolf? I loathe wolves!"
[Wolf, a Norwegian and a thief, arrives]
Olaf: "I don't see [a] wolf. Is there [a] wolf here?"
Wolf: "Here I am, king Olaf!"
[Eric, Hawk and Wolf take the boat and flee]
Olaf: "Thieves! I hate thieves!"
E, H & W: "We're vikings, we've got a boat that's called Serpent!"
- This play is meant to stress the lack of an indefinite article in Old Norse.