TIMELINE:  HUMAN EVOLUTION  100.000 BC => 2000 AD
   Jón Erlendsson        2001-04-14                                        hyperhistory.com     Námsnet HÍ
LJ
NL

HS
LI

FNF:  TIMELINE: HUMAN EVOLUTION  100.000 BC => 2000 AD http://www.hi.is/~joner/eaps/tlhh.htm     2001-04-09
BB CO EA  HOM  TLH  TLHH W_HIST   10X   ICEL  ID WW2 FUT_GLOB  MP (C) 2000  JE QM EX ALL TTT
GT
MAPS:  USA  A_H  USA W  USA_E         LJ_GLOB   ICELAND      LJ_TIMELINE:           Ice Age Floods
TIMELINES:  WARS   L1   MATH OV BIO  TL4  CHRON  PHYSICS   TL4  PHIL TL   MEDICINE LI  
. W-CIV  L2 UNIV UN45    ART  L2  EUROPE L1  TL1   TL4 EGYPT  TL1
. .
100.000
ZO
LIA
PL
. . Last Ice Age (LIA PL ) (120.000 - (18.000) - 10.000) kya EB_GEOT

Rrice.edu_ce_age   LIA2
    Ice Ages  ( IA  )
90.000
ZO
EB_GEOT
LIA
PL
. .
. . Homo Neanderthalensis  EB EB2
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80.000
ZO
EB_GEOT
LIA
PL
. .
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. .
. .
. .
. .
. . TOBA_Eruption
. .
. .
. .
70.000
ZO
EB_GT
LIA . .
. .
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. .
. .
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. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
60.000
ZO
EB_GT
LIA
PL
. .
. .
. .
. .
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50.000
ZO
EB_GT
LIA
PL
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40.000
ZO
EB_GT
LIA
PL
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
..
.
.
. .
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. . Cro-Magnon EB
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30.000
ZO
EB_GT
LIA
PL
. .
. . Tsunami_Storegga
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .  
. .
. .   "Last Glacial Maximum (21,000 yr ago) and changing  sea-ice cover
   through the past 190 k.y. " GSAT   
   LGM   MAP_VEG   M2
20.000
ZO
EB_GT
LIA
PL
. .
. .   "By 20,000 years ago Ireland was almost totally
  covered by a thick ice sheet stretching south-west from Scotland."  Iceage
. .
. .
. .
. .  H_Env Cat
. .
. .
. . Ice Age Floods  IAF Largest known flood in Earths History   (HB 4730)
"...Twelve thousand years ago or thereabouts, a cataclysmic flood - so great it equaled 10 times the
. . flow of all the rivers in the world today - broke through an ice dam in Western Montana and carved out the Columbia Plateau. "    (see below)
. . Q  
10.000
HOLOCENE
ZO
EB_GT
 H_Env Cat
H
O
L
O
C
E
N
E

.
7000BC-8000BC ME

NSA

New Stone Age (Neolithic Revolution NR   NL)   (NSA NL   CE)
6000BC-7000BC ME NSA HO     Tsu_Storegga   S2  H_Env Cat  BCOOL
5000BC-6000BC ME NSA           Noahs Flood?
4000BC-5000BC ME NSA . Bronze Age BL
3000BC-4000BC ME . Stonehenge (3100 BC-1400 BC) ( NL CBA   UK ISBCOOL
2000BC-3000BC . WH   
1000BC-2000BC . WH 1450 BC  Santorini   HP   (GO)   (IG)
          0-1000BC . WH 1000 BC Iron Age begins (IA  CE)
           0-1000 WH . WH
      1000-2000 WH . WH Little Ice Age (1300..1750...1850)  EB

 

 

 

 

 

World History: Explanations EX
BB CO Earth  HOM  TLH  TLHH W_HIST   10X   ICELAND 1900 WW2 FUT_GLOB (C) 2000  JE QM EX TTT

World History: Explanations EX

BB    Big Bang ZO Zoom Out (Larger Time Scale)
CO Cosmology ZI Zoom In (Smaller Time Scale)
HOM  Human Evolution
TLH    Human Evolution. Time span 6 million years EX Explanations
TLHH    Human Evolution. Time span 0.1 million years
W-HIST (WH) World History (3000 BC - 2000 AD)
              10X     World History (Enlarged Time Scale)
WW2    World War II
FUT_GLOB Future Studies and Global Aspects
QM Quantum Mechanics
1900 World History (1900-2000)

CCC

 

(C) 2000 Jón Erlendsson  

CCC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Quaternary Period http://search.eb.co.uk/bol/topic?thes_id=320522    EB_GEOT

Pleistocene        EB_GEOT
"The Pleistocene is subdivided into informal time units, the early,
middle, and late Pleistocene.


The early Pleistocene extends to the Brunhes-Matuyama paleomagnetic boundary at 730,000 years ago,
and the middle Pleistocene extends to the end of the next to the last glaciation at about 130,000 years.
The late Pleistocene includes the last interglacial-glacial cycle ending at the Holocene (
EB)  boundary
10,000 years ago."

"interval of geologic time, the youngest of the 11 periods in the Earth's history.

The Quaternary is both the shortest and most recent period. It is the second period of the Cenozoic Era,
following the Tertiary Period, and began about 1.6 million years ago (see Table).

The Quaternary is subdivided into two epochs,
- the Pleistocene (1,600,000 to 10,000 years ago)
- and the Holocene (10,000 years ago to the
present). The Pleistocene Epoch thus comprises
almost all of Quaternary time. "
http://search.eb.co.uk/bol/topic?thes_id=320522
http://search.eb.co.uk/bol/topic?eu=128057&sctn=2#s_top               NL_Pleistocene


 

. . . . .
PubMed hvar.is RRR
BR NL GL LJ stone age  http://www.ragz-international.com/stone_age.htm
BR NL GL LJ neo lithic
BR NL GL LJ neanderthal
BR NL GL LJ homo sapiens
BR NL GL LJ bronze age   EB
BR NL GL LJ iron age
BR NL GL LJ holocene  EB  TAB
BR NL GL LJ bronze age       

 

. . . . .
PubMed hvar.is RRR
BR NL GL LJ ice age   EB
BR NL GL LJ ice ages
The First Ice Age

Some 2.3 billion years ago, oxygen supported  a lot of land-based life on Earth,
and then slicked the planet's surface with ice

http://sciam.com/explorations/1999/110199ice/index.html

http://www.threerivers.k12.or.us/schools/fms/projectmay/iceage.htm
NAT
http://www.nature.com/NATURE/fow/010111.html
BR NL GL LJ pleistocene http://emuseum.mankato.msus.edu/offices/alpha/classes/book/paleolithic/pleistoc.html
BR NL GL LJ glacial periods  CE
http://emuseum.mankato.msus.edu/offices/alpha/classes/book/paleolithic/glacials.html
BR NL GL LJ glaciology
BR NL GL LJ glacial stages
BR NL GL LJ last glacial period
http://www.publicaffairs.noaa.gov/pr96/dec96/noaa96-78.html
BR NL GL LJ bronze age       





The Stone Age
"The Stone Age is usually divided into three separate periods--
- Paleolithic Period,  600-700.000 - 8.000
- Mesolithic Period, and
- Neolithic Period

--based on the degree of sophistication in the fashioning and use of tools.

Paleolithic archaeology
is concerned with the origins and development of early human culture between the first
appearance of man as a tool-using mammal, which is believed to have occurred about 600,000 or 700,000 years ago, and
the beginning of the Recent geologic era, about 8000 BC. It is included in the time span of the Pleistocene, or Glacial,
Epoch--an interval of about 1,000,000 years.

Although it cannot be proved,
modern evidence suggests that the earliest protohuman forms had diverged from the ancestral primate stock by the beginning of the Pleistocene. In any case, the oldest recognizable tools are found in horizons of
- Lower Pleistocene Age.

During the Pleistocene a series of momentous climatic events occurred
. The northern latitudes and mountainous areas were subjected on four successive occasions to the advances and retreats of ice sheets (known as Günz, Mindel, Riss, and Würm in the Alps), river valleys and terraces were formed, the present coastlines were established, and great changes were induced in the fauna and flora of the globe. In large measure, the development of culture during Paleolithic times seems to have been profoundly influenced by the environmental factors that characterize the successive stages of the Pleistocene Epoch. "


"The Middle Paleolithic Period

The Middle Paleolithic period includes the Mousterian culture, often associated with Neanderthal man, an early
form of man, living between 40,000 and 100,000 years ago. Neanderthal remains are often found in caves with
evidence of the use of fire. Neanderthals were hunters of prehistoric mammals, and their cultural remains, though
unearthed chiefly in Europe, have been found also in N Africa, Palestine, and Siberia. Stone tools of this period are
of the flake tradition, and bone implements, such as needles, indicate that crudely sewn furs and skins were used as
body coverings. Since the dead were painted before burial, a kind of primitive religion may have been practiced.
3

The Upper Paleolithic Period

In the Upper Paleolithic period Neanderthal man disappears and is replaced by a variety of Homo sapiens such as
Cro-Magnon man and Grimaldi man. ....."


"The Middle Paleolithic Period

The Middle Paleolithic period includes the Mousterian culture, often associated with Neanderthal man, an early
form of man, living between 40,000 and 100,000 years ago. Neanderthal remains are often found in caves with
evidence of the use of fire. Neanderthals were hunters of prehistoric mammals, and their cultural remains, though
unearthed chiefly in Europe, have been found also in N Africa, Palestine, and Siberia. Stone tools of this period are
of the flake tradition, and bone implements, such as needles, indicate that crudely sewn furs and skins were used as
body coverings. Since the dead were painted before burial, a kind of primitive religion may have been practiced.
3
.....
While
- Mesolithic cultures lasted in Europe until almost 3000 B.C.,
.....

New Stone Age.
.....
The earliest known development of Neolithic culture was in SW Asia
between 8000 B.C. and 6000 B.C.
There the domestication of plants and animals was probably begun by the Mesolithic
Natufian peoples, leading to the establishment of settled villages based on the cultivation of cereals, including wheat,
barley, and millet, and the raising of cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs.


In the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys, the Neolithic culture of the Middle East developed into the urban civilizations of the Bronze Age by 3500 B.C. Between 6000 B.C. and 2000 B.C. Neolithic culture spread through Europe, the Nile valley (Egypt), the Indus valley (India), and the Huang He valley (N China).
....
"
See the full original at: http://www.ragz-international.com/stone_age.htm

 

Neanderthal
"Neanderthal
also spelled NEANDERTAL, early form of Homo sapiens that inhabited much of Europe and the Mediterranean lands during the
late Pleistocene Epoch, about 100,000 to 30,000 years ago. Neanderthal remains have also been found in the Middle East,
North Africa, and western Central Asia. "
See the full original at: http://search.eb.co.uk/bol/topic?eu=56504&sctn=1#s_top

 

 

Little Ice Age
"A lesser, recent glacial stage called the Little Ice Age began in the 16th century and advanced and receded intermittently over three centuries. Its maximum development was reached about 1750, at which time glaciers were more widespread on Earth than at any time since the principal Quaternary Ice Ages.
See the full original at: http://search.eb.co.uk/bol/topic?thes_id=196580

 

 

 

 

Mesolithic

"Mesolithic
usually refers specifically to a development in northwestern Europe that
- began about 8000 BC, after the end of the Pleistocene Epoch, and
-  lasted until about 2700 BC.

Although culturally and technologically continuous with Paleolithic peoples, Mesolithic cultures developed diverse local adaptations to special environments. The Mesolithic hunter achieved a greater efficiency
than did the Paleolithic and was able to exploit a wider range of animal and vegetable food sources.
See the full original at: http://search.eb.co.uk/bol/topic?xref=36064

 

The Neolithic stage of development
"The Neolithic stage of development was attained during the Holocene Epoch (the last 10,000 years of Earth history).
During this time, humans learned to raise crops and keep domestic livestock, and were thus no longer dependent on hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plants. Neolithic cultures made more useful stone tools by grinding and polishing relatively hard rocks, rather than merely chipping softer ones down to the desired shape.

The cultivation of cereal grains enabled Neolithic peoples to build permanent dwellings and congregate in village
s, and the release from nomadism and a hunting-gathering economy gave them the time to pursue specialized
crafts. (See agriculture.) "
See the full original at: http://search.eb.co.uk/bol/topic?xref=36065

 

Last Interglacial Period             NL_Last interglacial
 
http://climchange.cr.usgs.gov/info/lite/   

 

 

Pleistocene

"Also known as the Great Ice Age, the Pleistocene is a period of recent geological time when Europe and North America
experienced bitter arctic climate. It began about 1.6 million years ago and it is usually divided into 3 subdivisions.

1. Lower Pleistocene: Lasted 700,000 years and was characterized by minor warm/cold regimens. During the Lower Pleistocene humans emergedin Africa and spread into Europe and Asia.

2. Middle Pleistocene: Lasted 730,000 years
and was characterized by many glacial and interglacial periods with rising and lowering sea levels.

3. Upper Pleistocene: Began 128,000 years ago
with the beginning of the last interglacial.
During the Upper Pleistocene, fully modern Home sapien sapien spread from the tropics throughout the Old
World and into the Americas."
See the full original at: http://emuseum.mankato.msus.edu/offices/alpha/classes/book/paleolithic/pleistoc.html

 

 

 

Bronze Age

"Bronze Age

third phase in the development of material culture among the ancient peoples of Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, following the
Paleolithic and Neolithic ages.
The term also denotes the first period in which metal was used. The date at which the age began varied with regions; in Greece and China, for instance, the Bronze Age began before 3000 BC, whereas in Britain it did not start until about 1900 BC.

The beginning of the period is sometimes called the Chalcolithic (Copper-Stone) Age, referring to the initial use of pure copper
(along with its predecessor toolmaking material, stone). Scarce at first, copper was initially used only for small or precious objects.
Its use was known in eastern Anatolia by 6500 BC, and it soon became widespread.

By the middle of the 4th millennium, a rapidly developing copper metallurgy, with cast tools and weapons, was a
factor leading to urbanization in Mesopotamia.
By 3000 the use of copper was well known in the Middle East, had extended westward into the Mediterranean area, and was beginning to infiltrate the Neolithic cultures of Europe.

This early copper phase is commonly thought of as part of the Bronze Age, though true bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, was
used only rarely at first. During the 2nd millennium the use of true bronze greatly increased; the tin deposits at Cornwall, Eng., were much used and were responsible for a considerable part of the large production of bronze objects at that time. The age was also marked by increased specialization and the invention of the wheel and the ox-drawn plow. From about 1000 BC, the ability to heat and forge another metal, iron, brought the Bronze Age to an end, and the Iron
Age began.
"
See the full original at: http://search.eb.co.uk/bol/topic?eu=16861&sctn=1#s_top

 

 

Ice Age floods
"Sunday, June 4, 2000, 12:00 a.m. Pacific


Ice Age floods(
NL) left their mark


by Linda Ashton
The Associated Press

WALLULA GAP, Walla Walla County - Twelve thousand years ago or thereabouts, a cataclysmic flood - so great it equaled 10 times the flow of all the rivers in the world today - broke through an ice dam in Western Montana and carved out the Columbia Plateau.

The 2,000-foot-deep Glacial Lake Missoula sent an unimaginably huge rush of water pouring across the Idaho Panhandle and Eastern Washington, before flooding at the narrow Wallula Gap, and then scouring out the Columbia River Gorge on its way to the Pacific Ocean.
"
See the full original at: http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/news/local/html98/icee04m_20000604.html
http://www.idahogeology.org/iceagefloods/iafihome.html

 

 

Earths Ice Ages
" There have been several ice ages in the history of the Earth.

What is commonly called the ice age is actually the most recent (Quaternary) (NL) which
began about two million years ago, and was characterized by cold (glacial), and relatively warm (interglacial) phases.

Four major continental glaciations are recorded in North America.
- he last (Wisconsin) began about 70,000 years ago, and ended 10,000 years ago.

At the peak of the last glaciation, approximately 97% of Canada was covered by ice.

Animals and plants that once lived in glaciated regions survived in refuges in Alaska and the Yukon, possibly on Banks Island, and in the northern United States. Probably the thickest ice (approximately
3,300 m) occurred over Hudson Bay. We are presently in an interglacial phase that could
last for another 10,000 or more years."
See the full original at: http://www.nature.ca/notebooks/english/iceage.htm
 
Last Ice Age (LIA) (120.000 - (18.000) - 10.000) kya   Rrice.edu_ce_age   LIA2

http://www.infoplease.com/

 

"Glaciations

During the Pleistocene Epoch there were periods of time named, glacials. These were periods of much cooler temperatures
where much of the Earth was covered in ice. Periods of warmer temperatures with less ice coverage were named, interglacials.
There is much evidence left on Earth to prove that the glaciers once covered certain areas and which direction they grew from
or retreated to. Evidence such as striations, scratching left on rocks to indicate the direction of travel of the glacier; Moraines,
ridges of sediment left marking the farthest advance of the ice sheet, etc.

A man named Louis Agassiz  (NL L1)(1865) contributed much information to the discovery and research of the ice ages. He discovered evidence that the glaciers had once extended far beyond their present positions. With this discovery, it led to many other
changes in beliefs and discoveries about glaciers had once extended far beyond their present positions. With this discovery, it
led to many other changes in beliefs and discoveries about previous ice ages. There were five major ice ages during the
Pleistocene Epoch. They ranged from time periods of 750,000 years ago, to about 75,000 ya. The ice ages were named (from
earliest to most recent) Danube, Gunz, Mindel, Riss, and Wurm. (NL) They were all named after German rivers..."

See the full original at: http://www.atmos.washington.edu/2000Q4/211/group_C/glaciations.html

Gunz, Mindel, Riss, and Wurm. (NL)
http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0001822.html

http://www.world-destiny.org/a24uph.htm

 

 

Canary Tsunami
"Island catastrophe

In 1994, Juan Carlos Carracedo from the Volcanological Station of the Canary Islands in Tenerife described dramatic evidence for a landslide collapse on El Hierro in the Canary Islands. Around 120,000 years ago, a volcano rising at least 1500 metres above sea level tore itself apart. A huge chunk of the north-west side of the island plunged onto the sea floor, breaking up as it fell. What remains behind is a bay 15 kilometres across, whose gently sloping floor is backed by a breathtaking semicircular escarpment more than a kilometre high. It is as if some gigantic sea monster had taken a bite out of the island. "

See bhttp://www.newscientist.com/features/features.jsp?id=ns225915    cs_major    LJ_TSUNAMI   Storegga