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More on inflections ...                       


Remind yourself first of the flowchart for -s inflections ():

It turns out that the the rules for -ed inflections follow the same pattern: the ending is

  1. - if the inflection follows another ALVEOALR PLOSIVE (t or d)
    wanted minded
    batted skidded
    rooted crowded
    parted waded
  2. -t if the inflection follows a a FORTIS consonant other than t - ( )
    stopped kissed
    barked washed
    laughed stitched
  3. -d in all other cases
    rubbed seized
    climbed raged
    stoned bagged
    loved brewed (= brood)
    mouthed filled
    lied poured (= pawed)
So the flowchart for -ed endings is:
You can also find this information in Wells's Longmans Pronunciation Dictionary under "-ed", p.249 ( in older editions)

THIS MEANS THAT both -s and -ed inflections follow the same - or at least similar - rules. We could formulate them like this:

  1. If the ending is THE SAME SORT OF SOUND as the sound in front of it --
      i.e. if -s comes after a SIBILANT or -ed comes after an ALVEOLAR PLOSIVE t or d --
    then the ending is + the lenis version of the ending (z or d)
  2. If the sound in front is FORTIS the ending is the FORTIS version of the ending (s or t)
  3. Otherwise, the ending is the LENIS version of the ending (z or d)
Which gives us this flowchart:

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