Wulf and Eadwacer
 

Exeter Book, Exeter Dean and Chapter MS 3501. Images from http://www.uiowa.edu/~c08l132/images/w&ems.jpg

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Edited text of Wulf and Eadwacer

(From Krapp and Dobbie, with vowel length added.)

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Lēodum is mīnum     swylce him mon lāc gife; (MS. lc)

 

willa hine āecgan,     gif on rēat cyme.

 

          Ungelīc is ūs. (MS. s)

 

 

 

Wulf is on īege,     ic on ōerre.

5

Fst is t ēglond,    fenne biworpen.

 

Sindon wl[h]rēowe     weras ǣr on īge;

 

Willa hine āecgan,     gif on rēat cyme.

 

          Ungelīce is ūs

 

 

 

Wulfes ic mīnes wīdlāstum   wēnum dogode;

10

onne hit ws rēnig weder,     ond ic rēotugu st,

 

onne mec beaducafa     bōgum bilegde,

 

ws wyn on,     ws hwre ēac .

 

 

 

Wulf mīn Wulf,     wēna īne

 

sēoce gedydon,     īne seldcymas,

15

murnende mōd,     nales metelīste. (MS. md)

   
  Gehȳrest ū Ēadwacer?     Uncerne earne hwelp
            bire wulf wuda.
  t  mon  ēae tōslīte     tte nǣfre gesomnad ws,
19           uncer giedd geador.

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Full breakdown of text

Click the word in the leftmost column to return to the text.
The rightmost column gives the Icelandic reflex - the etymological equivalent.

line 1 Leodum is minum swylce him mon lác gife
lodum  to (my) people   feminine dative plural   ljum (lum)
mnum   my dative plural 1st-person possessive pronoun mnum
is (it) is  verb "be", third person singular er
swylce as if (< sw lic) adverb sem (slkt < sv lkt)
him them pronoun dative plural eim
mon man, one noun nominative singular masculine  
lc play, sport, battle, gift, sacrifice noun accusative present neuter or feminine leik
gife were togive verf giefan 'to give', 3rd person subjunctive singular gefi
It is to my people as if one were to give them a gift/sacrifice/game/battle
 
line 2 willa hy hine aecgan gif he on reat cyme (compare line 7)
wylla will/will want to to verb willan, 'wish to', 3rd person plural vilja
h  they nomnative plural  pronoun eir
hine him accusative singular masculine pronoun hann
ecgan receive, eat verb infinitive -iggja
gif if adverb ef
h he nominative singular 3rd-person masculine pronoun hann
on on, into preposition
rat (their) troop, group / OR difficulty accusative singular masculine  noun raut
cyme comes verb cuman, come, 3rd person sigular kemur
Will they receive/destroy (eat) him if he comes into their throng/into difficulties
 
line 3 ungelic is ús (compare line 8)
ungelc unlike nominative neuter singular adjective lkt
is (it) is verb "be", third person singular er
s to us (more than two of us) dative plural pronoun oss
It is different with us
 
line 4 wulf is on iege ic on oþerre
wulf Wulf (man's name) nominative masculine singular noun lfur
is is verb "be", third person singular er
on on preoposition
ege island (=ge) feminine dative singular noun ey
ic I nominative singular 1st person pronoun g
on on preoposition
erre other feminine dative singular ordinal numeral annari
Wulf is on an island, I on another
 
line 5 fæst is þæt eglond fenne biworpen
fast fast, solid   fast
is is verb "be", third person singular er
t that neuter nominative singular demonstrative pronoun (article) a
eglond island neuter nominative singular noun eyland
fenne (by) fen, marsh neuter or masculine dative singular noun feni
biworpen surrounded neuter nominative singular past participle (um) orpi
That island is solid ground surrounded by marshland
 
line 6 sindon wælreowe weras þær on ige
sindon are verb "be", third person plural eru
wlrowe fierce masculine nominative plural adjective ?valreifir
weras men nominative plural marsculine noun verar
ǣr there adverb ar
on on preoposition
ge island (=ege) feminine dative singular noun ey
There are ferocious men there on the island
 
line 7 willað hy hine aþecgcan gif he on þreat cymeð (compare line 2)
wylla will/will want to to verb willan, 'wish to', 3rd person plural vilja
h  they nomnative plural  pronoun eir
hine him accusative singular 3rd person masculine pronoun hann
ecgan receive, eat verb infinitive -iggja
gif if adverb ef
h he nominative singular 3rd person pronoun hann
on on, into preposition
rat (their) troop, group / OR difficulty accusative singular masculine  noun raut
cyme comes verb cuman, come, 3rd person sigular kemur
Will they receive/destroy (eat) him if he comes into their throng/into difficulties
 
line 8 ungelice is ús (compare line 3)
ungelce unlike appears this time to be an adverb lkt
is (it) is verb "be", third person singular er
s to us (more than two of us) dative plural pronoun oss
It is different(ly)  with us
 
line 9 wulfes ic mines widlastum wenum dogode
wulfes Wulf genitive singular masculine name lfs
ic I nominative singular 1st person pronoun g
mnes (of) my genitive singular masculine 1st-person possessive pronoun mns
wdlstum wide-ranging dative plural adjective vleistum
wnum hopes dative plural feminine adjective vonum
dogode endured (?) hapax verb "dogian", first person singular past tense (dugi?)
I endured wide-ranging hopes of my Wulf
 
line 10 onne hit ws renig weder ond ic reotugu st
onne when (see line 11) adverb (=egar)
hit it nominative singular neuter 3rd-person pronoun hi (=a)
ws was verb "be", third person singular past tense var
rnig rainy nominative singular neuter adjective rigningar-
weder weather nomionative singular neuter noun veur
ond and conjunction en (=og)
ic I nominative singular 1st person pronoun g
rotugu sorrowful nominative singular FEMININE adjective "rtug"
st sat verb "sittan", 1st-person singular past tense sat
When it was rainy weather and I sat sorrowing  (the speaker is a woman)
 
line 11 onne mec se beaducafa bogum bilegde
onne then (onne..onne, when...then) adverb
mec me accusative singular 1st-person pronoun mig
s the nominative singular masculine definite article s
beaducafa warrior (beadu=battle) nominative singular weak masculine noun "bkafi"
bgum with arms dative plural masculine noun bgum
bilegde laid around verb "be-lecgan", 3rd. singular past (um) lagi
then the warrior laid his arms around me
 
line 12 ws me wyn to on ws me hwre eac la
ws was verb "be", third person singular past tense var
m to me dative singular 1st-person pronoun mr
wyn pleasure nominative singular feminine noun "vn" (=unaur)
t to preposition (til)
on t on, so far adverbial phrase (a v marki)
ws was verb "be", third person singular past tense var
m to me dative singular 1st-person pronoun mr
hwre however adverb "hvort" (<hvaar-t) ="samt"
ac also adverb auk
l loathsome adjective leitt (leiur)
it was a pleasure to me so far, but also loathsome
line 13 wulf min wulf wena me ine
wulf Wulf (man's name) nominative masculine singular noun lfur
mn my nominative sg 1st person possessive adjective minn
wulf Wulf (man's name) nominative masculine singular noun lfur
wena hopes nominative feminine plural noun vonir
m me probably accusative rather than dative (see mec line 11) mig
ne your, of you nominative feminine plural 2nd pers. possessive adjective nar
Wulf, my Wulf, me your hopes (hopes of you)
 
line 14 seoce gedydon ine seldcyma
soce sick feminine sg accusative (made me sick) sjka
geydon made (did) verb gedn (do, make): 3rd person plural past tense (geru)
ne your, of you nominative feminine plural 2nd pers. possessive adjective nar
seldcymas rare visits nominative feminine plural noun "sjaldkomur"
made sick, your few visits,
 
line 15 murnende md nals meteliste
murnende mourning nominadive sg. present participle (syrgjandi)
md "mood", heart, mind neuter nominative singular noun mur
nalas not at all (n ls) adverb "n laus"(alls ekki)
metelste mete (meat) lest (lack); lack of food nominative sg . feminine noun matarleysi
(my) mourning mood (heart), not at all lack of food.
 
line 16 gehyrest u eadwacer uncerne earne hwelp
gehrest (do you) hear verb (ge)hran/heran, hear heyrir
you 2nd person sg. nominative personal pronoun
adwacer man's name masculine singular noun "Auvakur"
ncerrne our (two of us) accusative masculine singular, 2nd person DUAL possessive adjective okkar (okkarn) = okka tv
earne wretched? accusative singular masculine adjectve. earm? earg? + ne arman? argan? ragan?
hwelp whelp accusative singular masuline noun hvolp
Do you hear, Eadwacer? Our wretched whelp
 
line 17 bire wulf to wuda
bire bears verb beran, bear. #rd sg.present ber
wulf man's name or "a wolf"? nominative masculine singular noun lfur
t to preposition (til)
wuda the wood accusative sg. noun (u-stem) til viar, ( skg)
Wulf (or a wolf) carries to the forest
 
line 18 t mon eae toslite tte nfre gesomnad ws
t that neuter accusative singular demonstrative pronoun (article) a
mon one masculine nominative singular noun / pronoun (="one") maur
ae easily adverb au(veldlega)
tslte slits asunder t sltan, 3rd pers. sg. verb (sundur)sltur
tte that which (t e) neuter nominative singular demonstrative pronoun (article) a sem
nfre never adverb  
gesomnad joined verb samnian, put together, unite semja (setja saman)
ws was verb "be", third person singular past tense var
Do you hear, Eadwacer? Our wretched whelp
 
line 19 uncer giedd geador.
uncer our (two of us) 2nd person DUAL possessive adjective okkar
giedd song, narrative, reason neuter mon inagtive singular noun ge
geador to-gether adverb (saman)

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Stefn Einarsson's translation

My transcription from Stefn Einarsson's papers in the National and University Library of Iceland (uncatelogued)

  Leodum is minum swylce him mon lác gife Fólki mínu er sem fégjafir þiggi:
  willað hy hine aþecgan gif he on þreat cymeð þak yfir höfut, ef í þraut kemr;
  ungelic is ús. Ólíkt er oss!
  wulf is on iege ic on oþerre Úlfr er á eyju, ek á annari,
5 fæst is þæt eglond fenne biworpen fast er þat eyland fenjum slungit
  sindon wælreowe weras þær on ige eru vígreifir verar á eyju:
  willað hy hine aþecgcan gif he on þreat cymeð bjóða þak yfir höfut, ef í þraut kemr;
  ungelice is us ólíkt er oss!
  wulfes ic mines widlastum wenum dogode Vænta ek Úlfs míns í ván ok ótta,
10 þonne hit wæs renig weder ond ic reotugu sæt. í regnviðrum ek raunir talda;
  þonne mec se beaducafa bogum bilegde þá er böðrakkur bauð mér arma -
  wæs me wyn to þon wæs me hwæðre eac lað. yndi var mér þat ok óglatt samt.
  wulf min wulf wena me þina Úlfr minn, Úlfr, í ofvæni beiðk,
  seoce gedydon þine seldcymas sjúka mik gerðu þínar sjaldkvámur,
15 murnende mód nalæs meteliste af mæði ek morna en eigi matarleysi.
  gehyrest þu eadwacer uncerne earne hwelp Heyrir þú Auðvakr! Okkarn beggja hvelp
  bireð wulf to wuda berr nú vargr til viðar!
  þæt mon eaþe tosliteð þætte næfre gesomnad wæs Auðslitit er því er aldri var tengt:
19 uncer giedd geador. okkar geð saman.

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Translation by W.S. Mackie, The Exeter Book Part II, Early English Text Society 1934, p.87

It is to my people as if one were to make them gifts.
They will destroy him if he comes to their troop.
     Our lots are different.

Wulf is on an island, I on another.
That ‎island is a fastness surrounded by a fen.
Savage men are there on the island.
They will destroy him if he comes to their troop.
    Our lots are different.

I suffered from far-wandering hopes of my Wulf.
It was rainy weather and I sat weeping
when the man brave in battle gave me shelter.
I was so far glad, but it was also hateful to me.

Wulf, my Wulf, it was my hopes of thee,
thy constant absence and my mourning heart,
that made me sicknot from lack of food.

Dost thou hear, Eadwacer? Our wretched cub
    Wulf will bear to the forest.
What never was united is easily torn asunder
    our song together.

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Old English vocabulary for Wulf and Eadwacer

aþecgcan take, accept
beaducafa warrior
bilegde laid round, enfathomed
bireð bears
biworpen surrounded
bogum with bows, with arms
cymeð comes
dogode ? dogged
eac eke, also,
Eadwacer man's name
earne weak, miserable
eaþe easily
eglond island
fenne by fen
fæst fast
geador (to)gether
gedydon did, made
gehyrest hear, hearest
gesomnad  joined
giedd song
gif if
gife gives, give (subjunctive)
he he, nominative
him him, them, dative
hine him, accusative
hit it
hwelp whelp, puppy
hwæðre but, however, whether
hy they
ic I
iege island
ige island
is is
lað loathsome
lác gift / sacrifice (Icel. leikur)
leodum to the people
me me (dative)
mec me (accusative)
meteliste lack of food
min my
mines my
minum my (dative plural)
mon one. somebody
mód mood, mind
murnende mourning, sorrowing
nalæs not at all
næfre never
on on
ond and
oþerre other (dat sg fem., 'annari')
renig rainy
reotugu sad, weeping (fem nominative sg)
se the (masc sg)
seldcymas seldom-coming, rare visits
seoce sick (fem. accusative sg.)
sindon are
swylce as if
sæt sat
to to
tosliteð cut asunder
uncer our (dual,two of us)
uncerne our (accusative masc sg)
ungelic unlike (adj)
ungelice unlike (adv)
ús us (dative plural, not dual)
weder weather
wena hopes (nominative plural)
wenum by hopes (dative plural)
weras creatures, people
widlastum wide-wandering
willað will, want to
wuda wood
wulf wolf, or man's name
wulfes wolf's
wyn joy, pleasure
wælreowe fierce, grim
wæs was
þina thy, your (fem pl.)
þon, tó þon so far
þonne when, then
þreat threat / company
þu thou, you
þær there
þæt that
þætte (=t e), that which, which


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